18 APR | UPSC Current Affairs | GS 1: Thiruvalluvar and Kerogen

Table of Contents


News: The BJP Party aims to establish Thiruvalluvar Cultural Centres across the globe to showcase India’s rich culture.


  • Thiruvalluvar, commonly known as Valluvar, was an Indian poet and philosopher.
  • Thiruvalluvar’s era and religious beliefs are subject to debate. Some suggest he lived in the 3rd or 4th century CE, while others propose a later timeframe, around the 8th or 9th century.
  • He’s been associated with both Hinduism and Jainism. Additionally, some Dravidian communities regard him simply as a saint with strong ties to Dravidian culture.
  • Thiruvalluvar is famous for authoring the Tirukkural, a classic work of ancient Tamil literature.
      • The Tirukkural is a collection of 1,330 couplets offering wisdom on ethics, virtue, politics, economics, and love.
      • The ‘Thirukkural’, are an essential part of every Tamil household.


News: Kerogen, found deep within rocky layers underground, serves as the primary reservoir of hydrocarbons.

Description: Kerogen is the naturally occurring, solid, insoluble organic matter found in source rocks.

Composition: It consists primarily of organic material that is nonextractable using organic solvents.

      • An organic solvent is a type of volatile organic compound (VOC). VOCs are organic chemicals which vaporise at room temperature.
      • Organic solvents are useful for dissolving certain materials and substances.
      • Organic solvents are often used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, footwear, paints, varnishes and adhesives.
⮚A hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon found in crude oil, natural gas, and coal.

⮚ Hydrocarbons are highly combustible and the main energy source of the world.

⮚ Eg: gasoline, jet fuel, propane, kerosene, and diesel etc


Abundance: Kerogen typically represents about 90% of the organic carbon content in sediments.

Occurrence: Found in source rocks, where kerogen may release hydrocarbons through thermal cracking.

Organic Constituents: Typical organic constituents of kerogen are algae and woody plant material.

Role of Kerogen in Hydrocarbon Formation

  • Composition: Kerogen comprises both lighter and heavier hydrocarbons.
  • Precursor of Oil and Gas: Kerogen serves as a precursor for the formation of oil and natural gas.
  • Molecular Weight: Kerogens have a higher molecular weight compared to soluble organic matter like bitumen.
  • Bitumen Formation: Bitumen is derived from kerogen during the process of petroleum generation.
        • Bitumen is a low-grade of crude oil which is composed of complex, heavy hydrocarbons.
        • In an oil reservoir, bitumen is a thick, viscous fluid and must be extracted from the ground.

Types of Kerogens and Hydrocarbon Generation

    • Type I Kerogen: Mainly composed of algal and amorphous material, highly likely to generate oil.
    • Type II Kerogen: Mixed terrestrial and marine source material capable of producing waxy oil.
    • Type III Kerogen: Derived from woody terrestrial sources, typically generates gas.
    • Hydrocarbon Yield: The types of kerogens present in a rock influence the type of hydrocarbons produced.
    • Hydrogen Content: Different kerogen types contain varying amounts of hydrogen relative to carbon and oxygen, affecting oil and gas yields.
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