Diverse Topics: From Trademarks to Chip Technology

GS Paper 1

Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

  • News: Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay was remembered on her birth anniversary on 3rd April. 
  • Early Life and Influences: Kamaladevi was born in the Saraswat Brahmin community of Mangalore.
  • Entry into Nationalist Struggle:
    • She was deeply influenced by Gandhian principles, particularly the idea of non-violence.
    • In 1923, Kamaladevi joined the nationalist movement, following in the footsteps of Gandhi, and became a member of the Congress party.
  • Political Engagement: 
    • She was the first woman to contest for the legislature of the Madras Presidency.

Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

  • International Advocacy and Feminism:
    • Kamaladevi also engaged in international socialist feminist movements. 
    • She attended the International Alliance of Women in Berlin in 1929, advocating for causes such as racism and political and economic equity between nations.
  • Literary Contributions:
    • Throughout her life, Kamaladevi was a prolific author, with her writings on women’s rights in India dating back to 1929. 
    • Her final book, “Indian Women’s Battle for Freedom,” was published in 1982.
  • Founding National Institutions:
    •  She played a pivotal role in reviving Indian handicrafts and establishing numerous national institutions promoting various forms of art, including dance, drama, music, and puppetry.
    • She also established the SangeethaNatak Academy, BharathanatyaSangam, the Indian Arts and Crafts Foundation and National School of Drama. 
  • Humanitarian Efforts:
    • Through her leadership in the Indian Cooperative Union (ICU), she resettled 50,000 Pathans from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) in the aftermath of the Partition migrations.
  • Leadership in Women’s Organizations:
    • In 1936, Kamaladevi assumed the presidency of the All India Women’s Conference, succeeding the Irish-Indian suffragette Margaret Cousins. 


  • News: Some people attacked a group of foreign students recently as they were offering Tarawih namaz in Gujarat University. 
  • ‘Tarawih’:
    • Derived from the Arabic word ‘Tarawih’ (also spelled ‘Taraweeh’), meaning rest or relaxation.
    • It is a special kind of prayer (voluntary).
    • It involves reading long parts of the Quran & performing many rakahs (cycles of prostrations required in Islamic prayer) during the Islamic month of Ramadan.
    • This prayer is performed in a relaxed manner during brief breaks between each set of four rikats or units of namaz.
    • Tarawih is a congregational namaz that can be performed in a mosque or at home and the workplace, too, if a separate space is allotted for it.
    • The origins of this prayer can be traced back to the final year of Prophet Mohammed’s life.

UPSC Current Affairs: Fire, Water, Will & Shrimp – Diverse Science Topics

Rock Paintings at Kumittipathi

  • News: Miscreants have caused damage to the rock art paintings at the cave at Kumittipathi.
  • Location: The cave is situated in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu.
  • Historical Significance: The paintings in the Pathimalai cave are drawn with white pigments and are believed to be around prehistoric, dating back approximately 3,000 years.

white pigments

  • Subject Matter: The paintings depict an elephant chariot, offering insights into ancient cultural practices and beliefs.
  • Similar Sites: 
  • Similar rock paintings can be found at Vellarukkam Palayam near Thondamuthur, as well as in Viraliyur and Kovanur in the district. 
  • These sites, all located on hilltops, depict various activities such as hunting, providing a broader context for understanding ancient civilizations in the region.


  • News: The Supreme Court has agreed to examine a plea challenging the Kerala High Court judgment that gave Muslim women the absolute right to seek a divorce through ‘Khula’.
  • Khula:
    • ‘Khula’ refers to the right of a Muslim woman to give a divorce to her husband unilaterally.
    • As per Islamic laws, a couple can obtain a divorce from each other either by the process of ‘Talaq’ or ‘Khula’. 
    • A Muslim woman is given this power to safeguard her rights. 
    • For initiating a Khula, a married Muslim woman needs to formally request a court for it by citing a valid reason like neglect or incompatibility with her husband. 
    • There are also chances for a woman to return the ‘Mehr‘ or have a financial settlement with the husband to end their marriage.
    • After a ‘Khula’ is finalised, the husband has to financially support their child’s education and other needs.
  • Talaq:  
    • In Talaq, a Muslim man initiates divorce from his wife by pronouncing the word ‘Talaq’, thus terminating the marriage with immediate effect. 
    • But unlike Khula wherein a Muslim woman needs to formally give a reason for the divorce, in Talaq a Muslim man can divorce his wife with or without any cause, and there is no specific procedure for it.
    • After taking a ‘Talaq’, a Muslim man has to repay his former wife her dowry and property, if any, owned by her.

GS Paper 2


    • PM Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan (SUMAN) is ‘An Initiative for Zero Preventable Maternal and Newborn Deaths’.
  • Aim: The Union Government launched Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan (SUMAN) in 2019 to provide quality healthcare at zero cost to pregnant women.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Union Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW).
  • Goals: 
    • This scheme offers zero expenses and access to detection and management of complications during and after pregnancy. 
    • Pregnant women can avail a zero-expense delivery and C-section facility at public health facilities.
    • SUMAN scheme ensures zero-tolerance for denial of services to children and pregnant women.
    • Pregnant women also receive free transport from home to the health facility and drop back after discharge.
    • Facilities such as services for sick newborns and neonates and vaccination are offered for zero cost.
  • Eligibility
    • Pregnant women from all categories, including APL and BPL, are eligible to get the benefits. 
    • Newborns aged 0 to 6 months old will be able to avail the benefits of this scheme. 
    • After delivery, lactating mothers up to 6 months from delivery are also eligible for this scheme.

Arms Embargo

  • News: India recently abstained on a resolution at the Human Rights Council that called on Israel for an immediate ceasefire in Gaza.
  • Arms embargoes: Arms embargo is a type of sanction imposed on a particular country or entity that restricts the export, import, or transfer of weapons.
  • Aim:  It can be used to coerce states and non-governmental actors to improve their behaviour in the interests of international peace and security.
  • Four resolutions critical of Israel were passed by 47-member Human Rights Council. 
      • India has voted in favour of other 3 resolutions that criticised:
        •  Israel for human rights violations against Palestinians,
        •  Israel’s occupation of Syrian Golan, and 
        • Called for the Palestinian right to self-determination.
      •  All four resolutions were introduced at the HRC in Geneva by Pakistan on behalf of the Organisation for Islamic Cooperation.
  • Human Rights Council:
    • The Human Rights Council is an intergovernmental body within the United Nations system made up of 47 States.
    • It is responsible for the promotion and protection of all human rights around the globe.
    • The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) serves as the Secretariat of the Human Rights Council.
    • It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. 

Group of Friends

  • News: In the second meeting of the India-led Group of Friends (GOF),a new database has been launched by India to record crimes against UN peacekeepers and monitor accountability progress.
  • Database: 
    • The new database is designed to serve as an online repository.
    • It will empower the Secretariat, Missions, and member states to monitor and address cases of malicious acts against Peacekeepers. 
    • This database is hosted on the Unite Aware platform.
  • Group of Friends: 
    • A ‘Group of Friends’ was launched by India in 2022 to promote accountability for crimes against peacekeepers.
  • Members: India, Bangladesh, Egypt, France, Morocco and Nepal. 
  • Objectives: 
    • Promoting accountability for acts of violence against United Nations peacekeepers.
    • Facilitating capacity building and technical assistance to host state authorities.
    •  Engaging with the Secretary-General and assisting member states hosting  peacekeeping operations in bringing perpetrators to justice.
  • Monitoring Progress:
    • The Group will be convened and moderated by representatives of the Permanent Missions of Bangladesh, Egypt, France, India, Morocco, and Nepal as co-chairs. 

GS Paper 3

Kathiya Gehu (wheat)

  • News:  Kathiya Gehu (wheat) from the Bundelkhand region in Uttar Pradesh has received the first Geographical Indication (GI) tag for a farm produce in the area.
  • Uttar Pradesh has made history by becoming the first state to acquire 69 Geographical Indication (GI) tags, highlighting the state’s commitment to preserving and promoting its unique agricultural products like Kathiya Gehu.
  • Kathiya Wheat:
    • It is also known as Durum wheat, is indigenous to the region and is rich in nutrition. 
    • Kathiya Gehu is rich in carotene, iron, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and copper, offering a plethora of essential nutrients for overall health.
    •  Kathiya Gehu is high in fiber, which aids in promoting digestive health, managing cholesterol levels, and assisting in weight management.
    • This variety of wheat demonstrates remarkable resilience, as it can thrive with minimal irrigation and in harsh climatic conditions, requiring only a small amount of water to grow effectively.

Well-Known Trademarks

  • News: The High Court of Delhi has declared Haldiram’s mark as a “well-known” trademark in respect of food items as well as restaurants and eateries.
  • Trademark:
    • A trademark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual, business organization, or other legal entity to identify that the products or services.
  • “Well-known” Trademark: 
    •  The protection of well-known trademarks in India is established by the Trade Marks Act, 1999, and the Trade Marks Rules, 2017.
    • Exclusive Rights: Once a mark is declared well-known, the owner gains the right to prevent others from registering or using identical or similar marks for different goods and services, thus protecting their brand identity and reputation.
    • Revenue Generation: Well-known trademarks can be licensed or franchised to others, providing the owner with an additional source of revenue while maintaining control over the use of the mark.
    • Factors for Determining Well-Known Status:
      • Degree of Recognition: One key factor in determining well-known status is the degree of knowledge or recognition of the mark among the relevant section of the public in India.
      • Usage and Promotion: The duration, extent, and geographical area of any use and promotion of the mark in India are also considered, reflecting the mark’s visibility and reach within the market.
      • Distinctiveness: The degree of inherent or acquired distinctiveness of the mark plays a crucial role in assessing its well-known status, highlighting its uniqueness and ability to distinguish goods or services in the marketplace.
      • Registration Status: The extent to which the mark has been registered in India or in other countries is taken into account, indicating the mark’s legal recognition and protection both nationally and internationally. 
    • Importance of Well-Known Trademarks:
    • Well-known trademarks serve as highly valuable assets for businesses, enhancing brand recognition, consumer trust, and market competitiveness.
    • The recognition of a trademark as “well-known” grants it additional protection beyond regular trademarks. 
      • This protection extends to unauthorized use, even for goods or services not directly related to the original trademark.
    • This enhanced protection helps prevent consumer confusion in the marketplace, ensuring that consumers can confidently identify products or services associated with the well-known trademark.
    • By preventing unauthorized use, well-known trademarks safeguard the reputation and distinctiveness of the mark, preserving its unique identity and value in the market.
    • Some of the well-known marks in India include, Amul, Coca-Cola, Bisleri, Google, Pepsi, Nestle, McDonald’s, etc. 

 Vaquita (Phocoena sinus) 

  • News: Wild and Colossal Biosciences are collaborating to use groundbreaking technology to rescue critically endangered species like vaquita facing extinction . 
  • Vaquita: 
    • Threat of Extinction: The vaquita  is the world’s rarest marine mammal.
    • Physical Description: The vaquita is characterized by distinct physical features:
      • A large dark ring around its eyes, 
      • Dark patches on its lips forming a thin line from the mouth to the pectoral fins, 
      • Specific coloration patterns.

meet the vaquita the most endangered marine mammal

    • Habitat and Behavior: 
      • Vaquitas are endemic to the Gulf of California, Mexico.
      • Newborn vaquitas have unique coloration patterns and tend to stay close to their mothers.
    • Status: Critically Endangered

Semiconductor Chip Technology

  • News: The semiconductor sector in India is experiencing significant growth.
  • Semiconductor: 
    • A semiconductor is a material product with some of the properties of both insulators and conductors (hence semi, meaning half or partial, conductor). 
    • Semiconductors are usually comprised of silicon, since this conducts electricity more than an insulator, such as glass, but less than a pure conductor, such as copper or aluminum.
    • The most commonly used semiconductor material is silicon (Si). 
  • Working of Semiconductors: 
    • Semiconductors work by altering their conductivity through a process called “doping,” where specific impurities are introduced. 
    • This process helps control the semiconductor’s electrical properties. There are two main types of semiconductors:
      • n-type semiconductor: Doped with impurities containing extra electrons, like phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, or bismuth that enhance conductivity.
      • p-type semiconductor: Doped with impurities containing fewer electrons, such as boron, gallium, or aluminium which create “holes” in the crystal lattice, making the semiconductor conductive in the opposite direction. 
  • Applications
      • Microprocessors: The central processing units (CPUs) in computers and other electronic devices are made of semiconductors. 
        • Microprocessors perform tasks and execute instructions, making them the “brains” of modern electronics.
      • Memory chips: Semiconductors are used in memory chips to store data temporarily, facilitating information exchange and processing.
      • Commodity Integrated Circuits: These standardised chips are mass-produced for routine processing purposes and are found in everyday electronic devices.
      • Complex System on a Chip (SOC): These chips integrate various functions, combining memory, microprocessors, and other components into a single chip commonly used in smartphones and other consumer electronics.
      • Microcontrollers: These specialised semiconductors are used to control electronic devices and embedded systems.
      • Transistors: Transistors, a fundamental component of semiconductors, are used for signal amplification and switching in electronic circuits.
  • Key Players:
      • Taiwan: TSMC leads Taiwan as the world’s top memory chip manufacturer, bolstering the country’s global importance.
      • Japan: Japan boasts the strongest semiconductor ecosystems, with 102 chipmaking facilities.
      •  South Korea: It hosts major players like SK Hynix and Samsung in the memory chip market. Samsung Foundry, alongside TSMC, offers cutting-edge chip technologies. 
      • The United States, Germany, and China maintain significant semiconductor production capabilities.
  • India
      • Electronics Manufacturing Growth: India’s electronics manufacturing sector has witnessed significant expansion, growing from less than $30 billion in 2014 to over $100 billion today.
      • Importance of Semiconductor Manufacturing: Recognizing the need to reduce supply chain vulnerabilities and overreliance on China, India is prioritizing semiconductor manufacturing, aiming to establish itself as a key industry hub.
      • Government Incentives and Assistance: India is offering $10 billion in incentives and support to attract global semiconductor manufacturers. 
      • Collaborative Approach: India is pursuing collaborative partnerships with like-minded nations to facilitate sustainable growth in the semiconductor industry, recognizing the need for significant investments and expertise.
      • Investment Commitments: Companies like Vedanta and Foxconn have pledged multi-billion dollar investments in semiconductor manufacturing units through initiatives like the production-linked incentive (PLI) scheme.
      • Foreign Investments: USA’s AMD plans to invest $400 million over the next five years, establishing its largest design center in Bengaluru, showcasing foreign interest in India’s semiconductor ecosystem.
      • Advantage in Semiconductor Design: India boasts a significant advantage in semiconductor design and intellectual labor, with a large portion of global design engineers being Indian or of Indian origin, providing an edge over China amid sanctions and demographic challenges.

Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio and Hockey Stick Effect

  • News: Despite the high price-to-earnings (PE) ratio, overseas investors are getting attracted to the Indian capital markets, reflecting global optimism and trust in India, exemplified by the hockey stick effect.
  • Price-To-Earnings (PE) Ratio: 
    • P/E Ratio or Price to Earnings Ratio is the ratio of the current price of a company’s share in relation to its earnings per share (EPS).
    • The price-to-earnings ratio (P/E) is one of the most widely used metrics for investors and analysts to determine stock valuation.
    •  It shows whether a company’s stock price is overvalued or undervalued.
  • Hockey Stick Effect:
    • The hockey stick effect is characterized by a sharp rise or fall of data points after a long flat period. 
    • It is illustrated using the graphical shape of a line chart that resembles a hockey stick. 
    • The hockey stick chart formation illustrates that urgent action may be required to understand a phenomenon or find a solution for the drastic shift in data points.
    • In business, a hockey stick chart is used to show significant growth in revenues.
    •  It is also used to show dramatic shifts in sales, poverty statistics, global temperatures, etc.

Project Akashteer

  • News: The Army has started the induction of control and reporting systems under ‘Project Akashdeep’ to bolster its air defence capabilities.
  • Project Overview: Developed by Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) as part of the ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ initiative, ‘Project Akashteer’ aims to enhance the Army’s air defense mechanisms.
  • Objective: The project aims to deliver situational awareness and control, ensuring the safety of friendly aircraft and engaging hostile aircraft in contested airspace.
  • Advantages: Project Akashteer will significantly enhance India’s air defense capabilities in several ways:
    • Efficiency and Integration: By digitizing Air Defence Control and Reporting processes, ‘Akashteer’ will usher in unprecedented levels of efficiency and integration. 
      • This will enable the Indian Army to respond swiftly to hostile threats while minimizing the risk of friendly fire incidents.
    • Situational Awareness: ‘Akashteer’ integrates radar and communication systems into a unified network, providing the Indian Army with high situational awareness. 
      • This will enable them to detect and engage hostile targets more effectively, ensuring the safety of friendly aircraft in contested airspace. 
    • Mobility and Resilience: The system’s vehicle-based and mobile Control Centers are designed to maintain operational capabilities even in challenging communication environments. 
      • This ensures that the Indian Army can operate effectively in diverse terrain and under adverse conditions. 
    • Automation: Overall, the deployment of ‘Akashteer’ signifies a leap towards complete automation of air defense operations. 
      • This will enhance the Indian Army’s ability to defend its airspace, ensuring a safer and more secure future for the country.
  • The Indian Army has declared 2024 as the ‘Year of Technology Absorption’ and is undertaking various initiatives to induct niche technology and systems into its inventory. 

Facts for Prelims

World Health Day

  • News: The date of 7 April marks the anniversary of the founding of WHO in 1948.
  • Aim: World Health Day is celebrated annually and each year draws attention to a specific health topic of concern to people all over the world.
  • Theme: The theme for World Health Day 2024 is ‘My health, my right’.
Scroll to Top