Table of Contents
- How can a juvenile be tried as an adult in Court?
Facts for Prelims
- Kamakhya Temple corridor
- LockBit ransomware
- Pindari Glacier
How can a juvenile be tried as an adult in Court?
The NCPCR has issued guidelines for the Juvenile Justice Board (JJB) to conduct a preliminary assessment under Section 15 of the Juvenile Justice Act, 2015 to determine if a juvenile can be tried as an adult. The 2015 Act allows for trying juveniles aged 16-18 as adults for heinous offences, replacing the 2000 Act.
How can a child be tried as an adult?
- If a child commits a heinous offence and is aged 16-18 years, the Juvenile Justice Board (JJB) will conduct a preliminary assessment to determine if they can be tried as an adult.
- The assessment will consider the child’s mental and physical capacity to commit the offence, their understanding of its consequences, and the circumstances in which it was committed.
- If the JJB decides there is a need for the child to be tried as an adult, the case will be transferred to the Children’s Court.
- The purpose of the assessment is to determine whether a child in the 16-18 age group should be tried as an adult for heinous offences.
What are the responsibilities of the Board?
- The JJB is responsible for conducting the preliminary assessment and providing a copy of the order to the child, their family, and their counsel.
- If the JJB does not have a member with a degree in child psychology or psychiatry, they must seek assistance from experts.
- The child must be provided with a legal aid counsel during the assessment.
- The experts who assist the JJB must undergo training on Section 15 of the JJ Act, 2015.
- The assessment must consider the Social Investigation Report (SIR) or Social Background Report (SBR) prepared by probation officers, child welfare officers, social workers, or after interacting with the child or their family.
What happens next?
- The National Commission for Protection of Children (NCPCR) has issued guidelines to clarify the steps to be followed during the preliminary assessment.
- However, the implementation and absorption of these guidelines by the JJB and Children’s Court remains a challenge.
The NCPCR is under a statutory obligation to monitor the proper implementation of the JJ Act, 2015 provisions.
Kamakhya Temple corridor
The government in Assam is planning to construct a corridor at the Kamakhya Temple in Guwahati on the lines of the Kashi-Vishwanath Temple Corridor in Varanasi.
- The project is inspired by the Kashi-Vishwanath Temple Corridor in Varanasi.
- The corridor will improve accessibility for differently-abled and elderly devotees and tourists.
- It will also enhance the grandeur of the Kamakhya Temple, a major ‘shakti peeth’ in Guwahati, Assam.
About Kamakhya Temple:
- The temple is located on Nilachal Hill in Guwahati, Assam.
- It is one of the oldest and most sacred places of worship in India.
- Millions of pilgrims and tourists visit the temple every year, especially during the Ambubachi Mela held in June.
- The temple is one of the 51 shaktipeeths or seats of Shakti followers, each representing a body part of Sati, Lord Shiva’s companion.
- The temple’s sanctum sanctorum houses the yoni symbolized by a rock.
- The ritualistic fair celebrating the goddess’ period is one of the reasons why the taboo associated with menstruation is less in Assam compared to other parts of India.
- The attainment of womanhood of girls in Assam is celebrated with a ritual called ‘Tuloni Biya’, meaning small wedding.
- The temple is a centrepiece of the Tantrik Shaktism cult in India.
- It is built in the Nilachala Style of Architecture, which combines the traditional nagara or North Indian and saracenic or Mughal styles.
- The temple complex includes individual temples dedicated to the ten Mahavidyas: Kali, Tara, Sodashi, Bhuvaneshwari, Bhairavi, Chhinnamasta, Dhumavati, Bagalamukhi, Matangi, and Kamalatmika.
LockBit ransomware is now targeting Mac devices for the first time, which is a major development in the world of cybercrime.
What is LockBit ransomware?
- LockBit is a type of ransomware that encrypts victims’ files and demands payment in cryptocurrency for decryption.
- The gang behind LockBit operates on a ransomware-as-a-service model, where willing parties pay a deposit for a custom attack and make profits through the ransom payment.
Why is LockBit targeting macOS?
- Historically, ransomware has targeted Windows, Linux, and VMware ESXi servers, but LockBit is now developing tools to target macOS to increase their scope of attacks and financial gains.
How does LockBit ransomware work?
- LockBit works as a self-spreading malware and hides executable encryption files in the PNG format to avoid detection by system defences.
- The ransomware gains access to the intranet server and network of an organisation through phishing tactics, social engineering, and brute force.
- LockBit then places an encryption lock on all system files, which can only be unlocked via a custom key created by the LockBit gang.
What is the LockBit ransomware gang?
- The LockBit gang is considered the most prolific ransomware group ever and operates on the ransomware-as-a-service (Raas)
- The exact location of the gang is yet to be ascertained, but their attack patterns suggest that they operate within Russian territories and avoid attacking Russian systems or countries within the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) to escape prosecution.
How to protect systems against the LockBit ransomware?
- Strong passwords with multi-factor authentication and training exercises for employees can increase resilience against cyber threats.
- Deactivating old and unused user accounts and having an understanding of cybersecurity threats and vulnerable points can also help protect against LockBit ransomware attacks.
14 people who were on a trek, including 13 from the United States, got stuck at Pindari glacier when an avalanche occurred in Uttarakhand’s Bageshwar district.
About Pindari Glacier:
- Location: It is in the Bageshwar district of Uttarakhand, India, in the Kumaon Himalayas.
- It is the source of the Pindari River, which flows into the Alakananda River.
- The Zero Point of Pindari Glacier is at an altitude of 3660 meters above sea level.
- The Kafani Glacier lies on the right side of the Pindari Glacier.
Other major glaciers in Uttarakhand:
- Gangotri Glacier
- Milam Glacier
- Satopanth Glacier
- Namik Glacier
What is an Avalanche?
- Avalanches are masses of snow, ice, and rocks that fall rapidly down a mountainside.
- They can be of various types, including rock avalanches, ice avalanches, and debris avalanches.