Table of Contents
- Botanical gardens and life on earth
Facts for Prelims
- Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)
- R21 / Matrix-M Malaria Vaccine
- Biomass Pellets
Botanical Gardens and life on Earth
Botanical gardens have a long history and are important centres for research, education, and outreach in plant biology. The recent decision by the Tamil Nadu government to establish India’s largest botanical garden in Chengalpattu district is an important and welcome development.
History of Gardens:
- The tradition of home gardens dates back to ancient times, as depicted in cave paintings.
- Rulers from ancient to modern times owned botanical gardens as a sign of prosperity and eclectic administration.
- European explorations in the 15th to 17th centuries led to the establishment of academic botanical gardens.
- Today, botanical gardens are major centres of research and education on plants and famous tourist destinations.
Gardens in India:
- The Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden in Howrah, Kolkata, is the oldest academic garden in India.
- The Botanical Survey of India is headquartered in Kolkata and is the country’s major research centre for botanical surveys and documentation.
- India has a high diversity of plants and animals, but our knowledge of our botanical heritage is extremely limited.
- Only a handful of botanical gardens in India have exploration and education programmes.
Importance of Plants:
- Plants form the basis of civilization and are the structural foundations of ecological communities.
- Plants provide us with food, nutrition, and medicine, mitigate climate change, enrich our spirits, and secure us against an uncertain future.
- Despite their importance, our scientific and educational institutions have neglected many aspects of plant biology.
- India’s botanical gardens have the potential to become major centres for the exploration and discovery of our plant wealth.
Chengalpattu Botanical Garden:
- The ₹300 crore Chengalpattu Botanical Garden will be India’s largest botanical garden, spread across 138 hectares.
- The CBG has the potential to become a major centre for research, education, citizen science, and outreach in plant biology, and a forceful voice in conservation.
- The Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew has been chosen as a key partner for technical expertise.
- Collaboration with botanical gardens in other countries can be immensely beneficial.
Gardens as a Metric of National Success:
- Botanical gardens represent a metric of national success in science, technology, and outreach.
- They were a display of prosperity, scientific dispositions, and eclectic administration in ancient times.
- Today, they are a symbol of national progress in botanical research and conservation.
Importance of Nurturing Native Plants:
- In the era of climate change and declining biodiversity, it is important to nurture native plants and associated living organisms.
- Every inch of our backyards and elsewhere can be used to heal our earth through the power of plants.
Botanical gardens are places for studying and sharing knowledge about plants. India’s biggest botanical garden in Chengalpattu is great news, but we need more of them. These gardens can help us learn more about our plant life and protect them from disappearing. As climate changes and species die out, it’s essential to take care of our native plants and the animals that depend on them.
Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)
The Indian Government will study how the EU’s proposed carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM) will impact the Indian industry.
Introduction to CBAM
- CBAM is a proposed EU tariff on carbon-intensive products.
- It aims to put a fair price on carbon emitted during the production of such goods entering the EU.
- It encourages cleaner industrial production in non-EU countries.
Implementation of CBAM
- The CBAM will ensure that the carbon price of imports is equivalent to the carbon price of domestic production.
- EU importers will have to buy carbon certificates corresponding to the carbon price that would have been paid in the EU if the goods had been produced locally.
- The price of the certificates would be calculated based on the auction prices in the EU carbon credit market.
Coverage of CBAM
- CBAM will initially cover several specific products in some of the most carbon-intensive sectors at risk of “carbon leakage.”
- Sectors include iron and steel (including some downstream products such as nuts and bolts), cement, fertilizers, aluminium, electricity, and hydrogen.
Companies in countries with a domestic carbon pricing regime equivalent to the EU’s can export to the EU without buying CBAM certificates.
R21 / Matrix-M Malaria Vaccine
Nigeria’s approval of the malaria vaccine, following Ghana, is a step towards achieving WHO’s goal of reducing malaria cases and deaths by 90% by 2030.
About R21 / Matrix-M Malaria Vaccine
- R21 or Matrix-M malaria vaccine is the second-ever developed vaccine for the disease, after Mosquirix.
- The World Health Organization (WHO) approved Mosquirix in 2021, while Nigeria recently approved R21.
- The approval of the vaccine by Nigeria and Ghana would help the WHO achieve its target of reducing malaria cases and deaths by 90% by 2030.
Global Initiatives to Curb Malaria
- The WHO has identified 25 countries with the potential to eradicate malaria by 2025 through its E-2025 Initiative.
- The WHO has also initiated the High Burden to High Impact (HBHI) initiative in 11 countries, including India, to reduce the malaria burden.
- The implementation of the HBHI initiative has started in four Indian states: West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Madhya Pradesh.
Indian Initiatives to Curb Malaria
- The Government of India aims to eliminate malaria in the country by 2027.
- The National Framework for Malaria Elimination (2016-2030) and the National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination (2017-2022) provide a roadmap to achieve this target.
- The National Strategic Plan aims to end malaria in 571 districts of India by 2022.
- The Malaria Elimination Research Alliance-India (MERA-India) has been established by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) to support research on malaria elimination.