Daily News Analysis 1 May 2023

Table of Contents



  • Achieving Universal Health Care

Facts for Prelims

  • Bluebugging
  • Bihan Mela
  • Sun Halo


Achieving Universal Health Care


Universal Health Care can help to address the current health disparities that exist in India, as it would ensure that everyone, regardless of their social status, has access to essential health services.

What is Universal Health Coverage (UHC)?

  • Definition by the United Nations
  • Focus of Sustainable Development Goals
  • Meaning in the context of India
  • Inclusion without financial hardship or discrimination

Evolution of Universal Health Care

  • Endorsement of \”Health for All by 2000\” in 1977
  • Everyone eligible without discrimination
  • India\’s commitment through National Health Policy 1983

India\’s Initiatives for UHC

  • National Health Mission (NHM) launched in 2013 to provide equitable, affordable, and quality healthcare services.
  • NHM focuses on health system strengthening, reproductive-maternal-neonatal-child and adolescent health, and communicable/non-communicable diseases.
  • Saksham Anganwadi and Poshan 2.0 is an integrated nutrition support program to address malnutrition challenges.
  • The program aims to promote practices that nurture health, wellness, and immunity for children, adolescent girls, pregnant women, and lactating mothers.
  • The program\’s components include nutrition support, early childhood care and education, upgraded Anganwadi infrastructure, and Poshan Abhiyaan.
  • Poshan Abhiyaan aims to reduce stunting, undernutrition, anemia, and low birth weight by a certain percentage per annum.
  • The National Food Security Act (NFSA) provides low-cost food grains to ensure access to high-quality food and nutritional security for people.

Advantages of Universal Health Coverage in India

  • Improved access to health services
  • Better health outcomes
  • Reduced financial burden
  • Increased government accountability
  • Increased productivity

Challenges in Implementing UHC in India

  • Inequitable access to health insurance
  • Lack of financial protection
  • Inclusion and exclusion errors in health insurance policies
  • Availability of services
  • Inadequate infrastructure
  • Poor health education

Inequitable Access to Health Insurance

  • Lowest coverage of health insurance among low-income households
  • Lack of equitable access to health insurance
  • Data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5)

Lack of Financial Protection

  • High out-of-pocket expenditure per delivery in public health facilities

Inclusion and Exclusion Errors in Health Insurance Policies

  • Inclusion of ineligible households and exclusion of eligible households
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) and other health insurance policies

Availability of Services

  • Concentration of services in areas with previous experience in publicly funded health insurance schemes
  • Percentage of empanelled hospitals under PMJAY in the public and private for-profit sectors

Way Forward

  • India\’s National Health Mission and intersectoral thrusts on health, education, and nutrition
  • Fully tax-funded Universal Health Care model
  • Encompassing primary, secondary, and tertiary care for all at an affordable cost without discrimination





Concerned over an increase in instances of cybercrime, Andhra Pradesh police recently asked the people to be wary of \”bluebugging.\”

What is Bluebugging?

  • Bluebugging is a type of hacking that exploits Bluetooth connections.
  • It allows hackers to access a device\’s calls, messages, and contacts.
  • Initially, bluebugging was a threat to laptops, but now it can target mobile phones and other devices.
  • The attack is limited to a range of 10 meters due to Bluetooth connections.

How does Bluebugging work?

  • Bluebugging attacks exploit Bluetooth-enabled devices.
  • Most devices have their Bluetooth in discoverable mode, which is the default setting.
  • Hackers try to pair with the device via Bluetooth.
  • After connecting, they use brute force attacks to bypass authentication and install malware.

What is Malware?

  • Malware is malicious software that intentionally harms computers, networks, or servers.
  • Types of malware include viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, and spyware.
  • Malicious programs can steal, encrypt, and delete sensitive data.
  • They can also alter or hijack core computing functions and monitor users\’ computer activity.

How to protect yourself from Bluebugging?

  • Keep Bluetooth turned off when not in use.
  • Set Bluetooth to non-discoverable mode, so it is not visible to other devices.
  • Keep your device\’s operating system and security software up to date.
  • Use strong passwords and two-factor authentication.

What to do if you are a victim of Bluebugging?

  • Immediately turn off Bluetooth and disconnect from the internet.
  • Scan your device for malware and remove any suspicious programs.
  • Change your passwords and enable two-factor authentication.
  • Report the incident to law enforcement or cybersecurity authorities.


Bihan Mela



The members of the Kondh tribe in Odisha’s Nayagarh district have added one more event to their calendar of festivals and celebrations called Bihan Mela.

What is Bihan Mela?

  • Bihan Mela is a seed festival celebrated by farmers.
  • It takes place after the Kharif crop is harvested.
  • Indigenous and hybrid varieties of paddy, millets, maize, and sorghum are used.
  • Women collect the seeds, decorate them, and carry them to the festival.

Why was Bihan Mela introduced?

  • It was introduced to encourage traditional farming practices like mixed cropping.
  • It helps farmers return to their roots and promote sustainable agriculture.
  • The festival highlights the importance of preserving indigenous seed varieties.
  • Bihan Mela celebrates the wisdom and knowledge of farmers.

Who are the Kondh tribe?

  • The Kondh tribe is a tribal group from the hills and jungles of Orissa, India.
  • They are divided into two broad groups: the Hill or Maliah Konds and the Plains Konds.
  • The Hill Konds have retained much of their original tribal culture.
  • The Plains Konds have adopted many aspects of Hindu religion and culture.

What are the sub-tribes of Kondh?

  • The Kondh tribe has several sub-tribes, including the Dongria, Kovi, Kuttia, Languli, Penga, Jharnia, and Raj Konds.
  • Each sub-tribe has its unique cultural practices, customs, and traditions.
  • They speak languages called Kui and Kuvi, which belong to the Dravidian language family.
  • The Kui language is written in the Oriya script, while Kuvi is written in the Telugu script.

What can we learn from the Kondh tribe?

  • The Kondh tribe teaches us about sustainable living and preserving indigenous knowledge.
  • They demonstrate the importance of living in harmony with nature.
  • Their traditional practices help to maintain ecological balance and biodiversity.
  • By celebrating festivals like Bihan Mela, we can learn from the Kondh tribe and promote sustainable agriculture.


Sun Halo



Recently, the people of Uttar Pradesh\’s Prayagraj were graced by an awe-inspiring phenomenon called Sun Halo.

About Sun halo

  • A sun halo is a colorful ring that appears around the Sun. It is caused by sunlight refracting through ice crystals in the atmosphere. The halo looks like a circular rainbow with bright colors.

How it is formed?

  • The halo is formed by sunlight passing through hexagonal ice crystals in cirrus clouds. These ice crystals reflect, refract and split the light, creating a circular ring. For a halo to appear, the ice crystals must be aligned and positioned correctly.

Colors of Sun halo

  • The halo around the Sun appears with bright colors similar to a rainbow.
  • The colors are more noticeable in a Sun halo than in a lunar halo.
  • The colors are produced by the refraction of light through the ice crystals in the atmosphere.

Difference between Lunar and Sun halo:

  • A lunar halo appears around the Moon. It is colorless, unlike a Sun halo.
  • A Sun halo is caused by sunlight refracting through ice crystals, whereas a lunar halo is caused by moonlight.

Where and when can we see it?

  • Sun halos can be seen around the Sun in the sky.
  • They occur in areas where there are cirrus clouds with hexagonal ice crystals. Sun halos can be observed during any season, but they are more common in winter when there are more cirrus clouds.
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