Daily News Analysis 2 May 2023

Table of Contents


  • The importance of constitutional punctuality

Facts for Prelims

  • Yellow Fever
  • Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary
  • Psychedelics

The importance of constitutional punctuality



The Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly recently passed a resolution urging the Governor to decide on the bills passed by the State Legislatures within a reasonable time period. The Chief Minister proposed this resolution to protect the sovereignty of the Legislatures and safeguard parliamentary democracy.

Resolution passed by Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly

  • On April 10, 2023, the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly passed a resolution urging the Union Government and President to advise the Governor to decide on the bills passed by the State Legislatures within a reasonable time period.
  • This resolution was proposed by the Chief Minister, M.K. Stalin, to safeguard parliamentary democracy.

Encouraging other opposition-ruled States to pass similar resolutions

  • After the resolution was passed, the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu wrote to his counterparts in other opposition-ruled States, encouraging them to pass similar resolutions in their Assemblies.
  • So far, the Chief Ministers of Delhi, Kerala, and West Bengal have expressed their support for the resolution and its underlying principles.

Need for a new constitutional architecture

  • Looking at these developments, it would be fair to say that the time has come to evolve a new constitutional architecture that would deliver on the demands for a time-bound constitutional delivery mechanism.

Original draft of Article 175 and B.R. Ambedkar\’s amendment

  • The original draft of Article 175 moved for discussion in 1949 allowed the Governor to return the Bill together with a message requesting that the House will reconsider the Bill, in his discretion.
  • R. Ambedkar recommended removing the phrase \”the Governor, in his discretion.\”
  • The final Article adopted by the Constituent Assembly and embedded in the Constitution explicitly negates any discretionary power.


Final Article adopted by the Constituent Assembly

  • Article 200 of the Constitution, as it stands today, limits the options before the Governor to give assent to the Bill sent by the legislature, or withhold assent, or reserve a Bill for the consideration of the President.
  • The Governor shall only act on the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers.

Discretion of the Governor

  • Governors have wrongly understood the function to grant assent to have endowed them with some discretionary responsibility.
  • However, the direct import of the words used in the Constitution as well as a composite reading of the debates in the Constituent Assembly portrays an altogether different interpretation.

Time-bound governance in other jurisdictions

  • In the United Kingdom, there has been no royal veto since 1708 when the assent to the Scottish Militia Bill was vetoed by Queen Anne.
  • In the United States, there is a time limit of 10 days for the President to give assent or veto a bill.
  • If the President does not sign or vetoes the Bill within this time, it automatically becomes an Act.

Judicial review by constitutional courts

  • Over time, matters involving an inexplicable delay in exercising powers by various authorities have been brought under the ambit of judicial review by constitutional courts.
  • The Supreme Court, in Keisham Meghachandra Singh vs The Hon’ble Speaker Manipur (2020), issued a writ of mandamus to the Speaker of the Meghalaya Legislative Assembly to decide on the disqualification petitions.


Yellow Fever


A total of 117 passengers of Indian Origin that have arrived from Sudan are currently quarantined because they were not vaccinated against Yellow Fever.

About Yellow Fever

  • Yellow fever is named for the association with jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.
  • The disease has been known by this name since the 18th century.
  • The yellow fever virus was first isolated in 1927.
  • Yellow fever is also called \”black vomit\” due to a symptom where blood is expelled from the stomach.
  • The virus belongs to the flavivirus family.

Endemic Countries

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes 47 countries in Africa, Central, and South America as endemic for yellow fever.
  • Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 90% of cases reported each year.
  • The disease is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions.
  • Endemic countries have varying levels of risk for yellow fever outbreaks.
  • Travelers to endemic countries may be required to show proof of vaccination.


  • Yellow fever is transmitted by infected mosquitoes, primarily the Aedes and Haemogogus species.
  • The virus cannot be spread from person to person.
  • Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on an infected host.
  • The virus then replicates in the mosquito and can be transmitted to other hosts through bites.
  • Mosquito populations are often controlled through insecticide use.


  • Symptoms of yellow fever typically develop 3 to 6 days after infection.
  • The acute phase of the disease causes fever, muscle pain, and vomiting.
  • Most patients recover after 3 to 4 days.
  • A small percentage of patients progress to a toxic phase, marked by high fever, jaundice, abdominal pain, and vomiting.
  • The toxic phase can lead to organ failure and death.

Prevention and Treatment

  • The yellow fever vaccine provides lifelong immunity after a single dose.
  • The vaccine is required for travel to some endemic countries.
  • Supportive treatment of symptoms, such as hydration and fever reduction, can improve survival rates.
  • There is no specific treatment for yellow fever.
  • Associated bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics.


Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary



Recently, the Supreme Court passed an order on the matter of Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary.

Location and Boundaries

  • Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Chandigarh, with boundaries extending to Punjab and Haryana.
  • The sanctuary shares borders with Mohali and Panchkula.
  • It is located 1 km to the northeast of Sukhna Lake.
  • The sanctuary is part of the Sukhna Lake catchment area, which is in the Shivalik hills.
  • The Shivalik hills are ecologically sensitive and prone to soil erosion.

Sukhna Lake

  • Sukhna Lake was built in 1958.
  • In the 1960s and early 1970s, the rate of siltation in the lake was high due to soil erosion from its catchment area.
  • The lake lost 66% of its water holding capacity due to siltation by 1988.
  • The Punjab and Haryana High Court declared Sukhna Lake a living entity in 2020.
  • Measures were taken by the Forest Department to control soil erosion from the hilly catchment areas.

Soil Conservation Measures

  • Various vegetative and engineering methods were adopted to control soil erosion from the hilly catchment areas.
  • These measures have been successful in reducing the rate of siltation in the lake.
  • The soil in the Shivalik hills is sandy and susceptible to erosion by surface runoff.
  • The measures included massive afforestation, which led to the development of an ideal habitat for a wide variety of fauna.
  • The Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary was created as a result of these conservation efforts.

ESZ Area

  • The Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary has an ESZ (Eco-Sensitive Zone) area of up to 1.75 km.
  • The Birds Sanctuary in Sector 21 has an ESZ of around 100 metres.
  • The ESZ is a buffer zone around a protected area that is regulated for certain activities to prevent damage to the ecosystem.
  • The ESZ is meant to act as a transition zone between the protected area and the areas outside it.
  • The ESZ helps to minimize the impact of human activities on the protected area.

Wildlife in Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The Sukhna Wildlife Sanctuary is home to a wide variety of fauna, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
  • Some of the animals found in the sanctuary include the Indian hare, jackal, jungle cat, and wild boar.
  • The sanctuary is also home to several species of birds, including peafowl, partridges, and doves.
  • The forested areas of the sanctuary provide an ideal habitat for these animals.
  • The sanctuary is an important conservation area for these species and their habitats.




Psychedelics are drugs that can alter perception, mood, and thought processing, while the person remains conscious and with unimpaired insight. They are non-addictive and less harmful than illicit drugs.


  • Term ‘psychedelic’ was first used in 1957 by Humphrey Osmond.
  • Psilocybin and mescaline have been used for healing, spiritual, and ceremonial rituals for centuries.
  • Modern-day psychedelics were first synthesized by Albert Hofmann in 1938.
  • LSD was widely used as a therapeutic catalyst in psychotherapy between 1947 and 1967.
  • Nixon administration criminalized the use of psychedelics and other psychoactive drugs.


  • Users report changes in perception, somatic experience, mood, thought-processing, and entheogenic experiences.
  • Perceptual distortions most commonly include the visual domain.
  • Somatic experiences may include the visceral, tactile, and interoceptive domains.
  • Mood changes may include elation, euphoria, anxiety, and paranoia.
  • Thought-processing changes range from changes in belief structures to the dissolution of ego boundaries.

How it works:

  • Classical psychedelics boost brain serotonin levels.
  • Psilocybin’s therapeutic effects require a ‘trip’ that is mediated by the activation of serotonin receptors.
  • LSD is completely absorbed in the digestive tract and then metabolized in the liver.
  • A case report published in 2023 demonstrated that psilocybin can have sustained antidepressant effects even in the absence of its psychedelic effects.


  • LSD and psilocybin are the most commonly used psychedelics.
  • Mescaline and N,N-dimethyltryptamine are less common.
  • Synthetic psychedelics have been developed by researchers.

Legal Status:

  • In India, the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 prohibits the use of psychedelic substances.
  • Ketamine, a dissociative anaesthetic with psychedelic properties, is used under strict medical supervision, for anaesthesia and to treat treatment-resistant depression.


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