16 APR | UPSC Current Affairs | GS 1: Muria Tribe & Fort Emmanuel

Table of Contents

Muria Tribe

News: The Muria tribe from Chhattisgarh, now in Andhra Pradesh, faces the double challenge of losing their homes and struggling to get clean water.

Location: Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh.

Language: They speak Koya, a Dravidian language.

Settlements: Muria settlements in Andhra Pradesh, referred to as ‘Gutti Koyas’ by native tribes, are home to around 6,600 Internally Displaced People (IDPs).

Legal Status: While Murias held Scheduled Tribe (ST) status in Chhattisgarh, they were not granted the same status in migrated states like Telangana.

Marriage and Social Structure:

Ghotul System: Young Muria men and women participate in the Ghotul, a communal hut where they socialize, learn, and form relationships before marriage.

Progressive Perspective: Muria culture embraces premarital physical contact, considering it a fundamental aspect of their heritage.

Consent and Choice: The Ghotul system revolves around the principles of consent and personal choice, with premarital physical contact being entirely voluntary.

Fort Emmanuel

News: Conservation efforts urgently needed for Kochi’s Emmanuel fort.

  • Fort Emmanuel, built by the Portuguese in 1503, is among the oldest European forts in India.
  • It used to be a big fort that enclosed a whole town, giving the Portuguese a strong hold in the area.

Fort Emmanuel

  • It was a symbol of the strategic alliance between the Maharajah of Kochi and the Monarch of Portugal, after whom it was named.
  • But in 1683, the Dutch took over, destroying Portuguese buildings.
  • Later, the British took control until 1947 when India became independent.
  • Today, it’s mostly in ruins, but it’s a reminder of the area’s colonial past.


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