Daily News Analysis 25 and 26 June 2023

Table of Contents


  1. Outreach to diaspora and statesmanship

Facts for Prelims

  1. Chiral Bose-Liquid State
  2. White-Rumped Vulture
  3. Auroras

Outreach to diaspora and statesmanship


  1. Tamil Nadu Chief Minister, M.K. Stalin, promised to protect the Tamil diaspora during his overseas tour.
  2. The Tamil diaspora is spread worldwide in search of education, business, and employment, forming a substantial part of the Indian diaspora.

Facts about the Diaspora:

  1. Tamils are the majority among the Indian population in countries such as Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and others.
  2. The diaspora identifies with their Tamil, Indian, and host country identities.
  3. There is a trend of diaspora migration from countries like Fiji, Malaysia, and Singapore to places like Australia, Canada, and the U.S.

Diverse Hopes and Challenges:

  1. The hopes and challenges faced by the Tamil diaspora differ based on factors like migration nature, education, profession, economic status, and host country dynamics.
  2. The Tamil diaspora has excelled in various fields such as politics, economics, literature, arts, sports, and science.

Host Country Policies and Impact:

  1. Jawaharlal Nehru\’s aspirations to protect Indians abroad were not fully realized.
  2. Sri Lanka enacted laws that affected Indian Tamils\’ citizenship, and Burmese Tamils faced expulsion.
  3. India\’s policy towards Sri Lanka sometimes compromised the interests of the Indian Tamil community.

Protecting Tamil Language and Culture:

  1. Stalin emphasized the importance of protecting the Tamil language.
  2. In many countries, the Tamil community has neglected the Tamil language, a significant aspect of Tamil culture.

Federal Camaraderie:

  1. Central government holds authority over the policy towards the Indian diaspora, but state governments can influence decisions.
  2. Cooperation and friendship between the central government and the DMK government are crucial.
  3. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act (CAA) should consider persecuted minorities, including Sri Lankan Tamils.

Amicable Solutions:

  1. Tamil Nadu\’s approach should avoid confrontation with the central government.
  2. Sri Lankan Tamil refugees desire Indian citizenship and meet residential qualifications.
  3. State and central governments must collaborate to find a diplomatic resolution, requiring statesmanship rather than opportunism.


In conclusion, safeguarding the Tamil diaspora and their cultural heritage, promoting cooperation between the state and central governments, and addressing the concerns of the Tamil community are essential for a harmonious and inclusive society.

Chiral Bose-Liquid State


According to recent research, the chiral Bose-liquid state may be an entirely new state of matter.

About the Chiral Bose-Liquid State:


  1. Matter usually exists in solid, liquid, or gas forms.
  2. At extremely low temperatures or in the quantum realm, matter behaves differently from the familiar states.

Quantum States:

  1. Quantum states exhibit behaviors distinct from solid, liquid, and gas states.
  2. These states arise in frustrated quantum systems with infinite possibilities resulting from particle interactions.

Formation of Chiral Bose-Liquid State:

  1. Researchers utilized a bi-layer semiconducting device.
  2. The top layer contains abundant electrons that can move freely.
  3. The bottom layer is filled with \”holes\” where electrons can reside.
  4. The two layers are brought into close proximity.
  5. By creating a local imbalance, electrons are left without enough holes to occupy, leading to the formation of the chiral Bose-liquid state.
  6. In this state, electrons arrange themselves into predictable patterns, becoming resistant to changes in spin and synchronizing their movements.

Significance and Potential Applications:

  1. Creating such states of matter is challenging but may offer opportunities for novel digital encryption systems.

Understanding \”Chiral\”:

  1. The term \”chiral\” originates from the Greek word for \”hand.\”
  2. It refers to objects or entities that cannot be superimposed on their own mirror image.

White-Rumped Vulture


To revive the vulture population in the state of Madhya Pradesh, 20 white-rumped vultures were recently brought to Vulture Conservation Centre in Kerwa from Pinjore in Haryana.

About the White-Rumped Vulture:


  1. The White-Rumped Vulture is a medium-sized vulture species.
  2. Its scientific name is Gyps bengalensis.
  3. It is also known as the Indian White-backed Vulture or Oriental White-backed Vulture.

Distribution and Habitat:

  1. Found in various countries including Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and southern Vietnam.
  2. Mostly inhabits plains and occasionally hilly areas.
  3. Can also be seen in villages and cities near cultivated areas.


  1. In the 1980s, the global population was estimated to be several million individuals, making it the most abundant large bird of prey.
  2. However, as of 2021, the global population has drastically declined to less than 6,000 mature individuals.

Physical Features:

  1. Typical medium-sized vulture with an unfeathered head and neck, broad wings, and short tail feathers.
  2. Adults measure 75 to 85 cm in height, have a wingspan of 180 to 210 cm, and weigh between 3.5 and 7.5 kg.
  3. Males and females are roughly the same size.
  4. Adult vultures have blackish plumage, a white neck-ruff, and a white patch of feathers on the lower back and upper tail, which gives them their name.
  5. The upper surface of their wings shows a pale grey patch when folded, while the undersides are dark slate to brownish in color.

Conservation Status:

  1. Critically Endangered according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
  2. Listed under Schedule-1 of the Wildlife Protection Act 1972, indicating legal protection.



Recently, an international team of researchers revealed global observations of auroras associated with carbon dioxide using satellites.

About Auroras:

Formation of Auroras:

  1. Auroras are formed when charged particles ejected from the sun\’s corona, known as solar wind, collide with Earth\’s ionosphere.
  2. In the Northern Hemisphere, it is called the northern lights (aurora borealis), while in the Southern Hemisphere, it is called the southern lights (aurora australis).
  3. The hemispheric asymmetry of auroras is influenced by the interaction between the sun\’s magnetic field and Earth\’s magnetic field.
  4. The commonly observed green and red auroras occur between 100 and 250 kilometers above the Earth\’s surface due to excited atomic oxygen.

Carbon Dioxide Aurora:

  1. When charged particles interact with Earth\’s atmosphere, they encounter various atoms and molecules, including carbon dioxide.
  2. While carbon dioxide is known as a greenhouse gas in the lower atmosphere, small amounts of it also exist in the upper atmosphere.
  3. When carbon dioxide molecules, located around 90 kilometers above the Earth, become excited during an aurora, they emit infrared radiation.
  4. This results in a higher amount of infrared radiation than what is typically observed in the Earth\’s atmosphere.
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