Daily News Analysis 22 June 2023

Table of Contents


  1. More HIT than miss in India-Nepal ties

Facts for Prelims

  1. Global gender index
  2. Einstein Telescope
  3. Mesolithic Rock painting

More HIT than miss in India-Nepal ties


Nepal\’s Prime Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal \’Prachanda\’ concluded his official visit to India and described it as successful. This visit has been more fruitful compared to his previous visits in 2008 and 2016. Important issues were handled tactfully during the visit.

Prachanda\’s Political Journey

  1. Prachanda led the Maoist Centre in the elections, forming a coalition with the Nepali Congress.
  2. There were disagreements over the post of Prime Minister, leading Prachanda to team up with K.P. Sharma Oli-led UML.
  3. Prachanda became Prime Minister but later switched back to the Nepali Congress with their support.

Power-Sharing Arrangement

  1. A complex power-sharing arrangement was made, with Prachanda serving as Prime Minister for two years.
  2. Madhav Nepal from CPN-Unified Socialist will take over for a year, followed by Sher Bahadur Deuba from the Nepali Congress for the remaining two years.
  3. Nepal\’s transition to a federal republic has been politically tumultuous but relatively peaceful.

Hydropower Cooperation

  1. Nepal has significant hydropower potential but had limited installed capacity until a decade ago.
  2. Nepal now has an installed capacity of 2,200 MW and can export power to India during seasons of surplus.
  3. Long-term power trade agreements aim to export 10,000 MW of power within ten years.
  4. Various hydropower projects have been initiated, including the Arun III, Arun IV, and Lower Arun projects.

Addressing Controversial Issues

  1. Controversial issues were avoided during the visit, contributing to its success.
  2. The Agnipath scheme and the Kalapani boundary issue require discussions and time for resolution.
  3. The India-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1950, considered unfair by some in Nepal, needs objective discussions.

Strengthening Bilateral Relations

  1. Both sides focused on economic ties and avoided public disagreements.
  2. Efforts were made to enhance connectivity, including highways, infoways, and transways.
  3. Check posts and railway lines were inaugurated, and plans for pipelines were signed to facilitate movement and trade.
  4. The focus on collaboration can help rebuild trust between the two countries.


Prime Minister Prachanda\’s visit to India was deemed successful, with concrete outcomes and the avoidance of contentious issues. The cooperation in hydropower, efforts towards connectivity, and the need for objective discussions on sensitive matters can contribute to stronger bilateral relations between India and Nepal.

Global gender index


India climbs eight places to 127 in global gender index, says WEF report.

India\’s Ranking and Improvement:

  1. Ranking: India was ranked at 127 out of 146 countries in terms of gender parity, according to the World Economic Forum\’s Gender Gap Report, 2023.
  2. Improvement: This ranking shows an improvement of eight places compared to the previous year\’s ranking, where India was placed at 135.

Education Parity:

  1. Enrolment: India achieved parity in enrolment across all levels of education, according to the report.

Overall Gender Gap:

  1. Progress: India closed 64.3% of the overall gender gap, indicating some progress.
  2. Economic Participation: However, the report highlighted that India has only reached 36.7% parity in economic participation and opportunity.

Neighboring Countries\’ Rankings:

  1. Comparison: The index ranked India\’s neighboring countries with Pakistan at 142, Bangladesh at 59, China at 107, Nepal at 116, Sri Lanka at 115, and Bhutan at 103.

Leading Country:

  1. Iceland: Iceland was recognized as the most gender-equal country for the 14th consecutive year, having closed over 90% of its gender gap.

Wages and Income:

  1. Parity in Wages: In India, there has been an increase in parity in wages and income.
  2. Senior Positions: However, the representation of women in senior positions and technical roles slightly declined compared to the previous edition.

Political Empowerment:

  1. Progress: India has achieved 25.3% parity in political empowerment, with women representing 15.1% of parliamentarians, the highest since the inaugural report in 2006.
  2. Women\’s Representation in Local Governance: India is among the countries, including Bolivia and France, that have achieved over 40% women\’s representation in local governance.

Sex Ratio and Skewed Birth Ratios:

  1. Improvement in Sex Ratio: India experienced a 1.9 percentage point improvement in sex ratio at birth, contributing to overall parity after a period of slow progress.
  2. Skewed Sex Ratios: The report highlighted that India, along with Vietnam, Azerbaijan, and China, has relatively low rankings in the Health and Survival sub-index due to skewed sex ratios at birth.
  3. Southern Asian Region: The Southern Asian region, including India, achieved 63.4% gender parity, the second-lowest among eight regions.

Overall Regional Progress:

  1. South Asia: The score in South Asia increased by 1.1 percentage points, partly due to improvements in populous countries like India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh since 2006.

Einstein Telescope


CERN is helping build and realise the Einstein Telescope, a massive subterranean gravitational wave detector that is expected to be ten times as sensitive as the detectors so far.

About Einstein Telescope:

  1. Overview: The Einstein Telescope is a highly advanced observatory for detecting gravitational waves, currently in the planning stage.
  2. Building on Success: It builds upon the achievements of the Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO detectors, which made groundbreaking discoveries of merging black holes and neutron stars in the last five years.
  3. Improved Sensitivity: The Einstein Telescope will enhance sensitivity by increasing the interferometer\’s size from 3km (Virgo) to 10km and implementing new technologies.
  4. Increased Sensitivity: It is expected to be at least ten times more sensitive than LIGO.


  1. Exploring the Universe: The Einstein Telescope will enable scientists to explore the Universe through gravitational waves, offering insights into its cosmic history, including the cosmological dark ages.
  2. Fundamental Physics and Cosmology: It will help address fundamental questions in physics and cosmology, such as tests of general relativity near black-hole horizons and the study of quantum gravity. It will also provide knowledge about dark matter, dark energy, and potential modifications of general relativity at cosmological scales.
  3. Detection of Intermediate-Mass Black Holes: With its low-frequency sensitivity, the telescope will be capable of detecting intermediate-mass black holes.

What are Gravitational Waves?

  1. Definition: Gravitational waves are ripples in space-time caused by extremely powerful and energetic processes in the Universe.
  2. Prediction by Einstein: Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves in 1916 as part of his general theory of relativity.
  3. Disruption of Space-Time: According to Einstein\’s mathematics, massive accelerating objects like black holes or neutron stars orbiting each other cause disturbances in space-time, resulting in waves that propagate in all directions.
  4. Information Carriers: These waves carry information about their origins and provide clues about the nature of gravity.

Sources of Strong Waves: The most intense gravitational waves are produced by cataclysmic events, including the collision of black holes, supernovae explosions, and the merging of neutron stars.

Mesolithic Rock painting


Recently, a Mesolithic period rock painting depicting a person tilling a piece of land has been found in Orvakallu village in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh.

Key Findings:

Materials Used in the Paintings:

Natural White Kaolin: The paintings were created using a substance called \”natural white kaolin,\” which is a type of mineral.

Red Ochre Pigments: The paintings also used red ochre pigments, which are made from a mixture of clay, sand, and ferric oxide.

Understanding Kaolinite:

  1. Definition: Kaolinite is a soft and earthy mineral that is usually white in color.
  2. Formation: It is formed through the chemical weathering of aluminum silicate minerals like feldspar.

Insights from the Paintings:

  1. Social Life and Culture: These paintings provide valuable information about the social life and culture of the people who lived in the area where they were found.
  2. Depiction of Activities: One painting depicted a man catching a wild goat using his left hand and a hook-like tool to control it.
  3. Representation of Relationships: Another painting showed two couples standing with their hands raised, while a child stood behind them.

What is the Mesolithic Period?

  1. Overview: The Mesolithic period, also known as the Middle Stone Age, existed between the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) and the Neolithic (New Stone Age).
  2. Timeframe: This period is generally believed to have occurred around 12,000 to 10,000 years ago.

Lifestyle during the Mesolithic Period:

  1. Hunter-Gatherer Communities: Human societies during the Mesolithic period primarily relied on hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant resources for their survival.
  2. Stone Tools: Stone tools from this period were typically small in size and referred to as microliths.
  3. Use of Microliths: Microliths were likely attached to bone or wooden handles to create tools such as saws and sickles.
  4. Coexistence with Older Tools: While microliths were used, older types of tools from previous periods continued to be in use during the Mesolithic period.
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