Daily News Analysis 08 August 2023 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for 08 August 2023: Tamil Palm Manuscripts: Gnanamuyarchi, Adichanallur Archaeological Site Redevelopment, Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2023, Minimum Age for Contesting in Elections-Revise it or not?, Meri LiFE, Mera Swachh Shehar Campaign, Genetic Diversity in the Indian Population: Study Findings, India\’s Sugar Surplus and its corresponding Impact on Agriculture, SpaceX\’s Starlink Monopoly in Low-Earth Orbit, GSAT 24 Satellite Utilization, Swathi Weapon Locating Radar (WLR), 2022 State of the Climate in Asia Report, National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), Line of Actual Control (LAC), Rhesus Macaque, Havana Syndrome, Neyveli Protests Aces on Wheels: Promoting Wheelchair Tennis, Iran-Saudi-Kuwait Dispute over Arash-Dorra Gas Field, Nuclear Medicine: Diagnosis and Treatment, IMS-1 Satellite Bus Technology: Private Sector Involvement, Neerakshi: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, Amrit Bharat Station Scheme: Railway Station Redevelopment, Devika River Rejuvenation Project: Progress and Goals, Revised Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) Standards for Pharmaceuticals.


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1

  • Tamil Palm Manuscripts: Gnanamuyarchi
  • Adichanallur Archaeological Site Redevelopment


GS Paper 2:

  • Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2023
  • Minimum Age for Contesting in Elections-Revise it or not?
  • Meri LiFE, Mera Swachh Shehar Campaign


GS Paper 3:

  • Genetic Diversity in the Indian Population: Study Findings
  • India\’s Sugar Surplus and its corresponding Impact on Agriculture
  • SpaceX\’s Starlink Monopoly in Low-Earth Orbit
  • GSAT 24 Satellite Utilization
  • Swathi Weapon Locating Radar (WLR)
  • 2022 State of the Climate in Asia Report


Prelims Related Facts

  • National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
  • Line of Actual Control (LAC)
  • Rhesus Macaque.
  • Havana Syndrome
  • Neyveli Protests
  • Aces on Wheels: Promoting Wheelchair Tennis
  • Iran-Saudi-Kuwait Dispute over Arash-Dorra Gas Field
  • Nuclear Medicine: Diagnosis and Treatment
  • IMS-1 Satellite Bus Technology: Private Sector Involvement
  • Neerakshi: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
  • Amrit Bharat Station Scheme: Railway Station Redevelopment
  • Devika River Rejuvenation Project: Progress and Goals
  • Revised Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) Standards for Pharmaceuticals


GS Paper 1

Tamil Palm Manuscripts: Gnanamuyarchi

Discovery of Gnanamuyarchi Manuscripts

  1. Palm manuscripts from 18th Century found in Armenian monastery in Northern Italy.


About Manuscripts

  1. Handwritten or typewritten documents before printing age.
  2. Contains first translation of Ignatius’ Spiritual Exercise in Tamil.



  1. Indigenous names signify cultural, ecological connections.
  2. Armenians from Chennai might have brought manuscripts to Italy.


Adichanallur Archaeological Site Redevelopment



Adichanallur Archaeological Site

  1. Iron Age burial site in Tamil Nadu.
  2. Foundation stone laid for \’Iconic Site Museum\’.


Key Features

  1. Green building standards for environmental sustainability.
  2. Modern and heritage blend in design.
  3. Theme-inspired designs based on local landmarks.



  1. Tribute to history, showcasing rich cultural heritage.
  2. Part of budget 2020-21 for site development.
  3. Promotes tourism, preserves heritage.


GS Paper 2

Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2023


The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2023 aims to attract private sector investment for exploring critical and deep-seated minerals.


Critical and Deep-Seated Minerals Defined

  1. Critical Minerals: Essential for industries like technology, clean energy.
  2. Deep-Seated Minerals: Found deep within Earth\’s crust, harder to explore and mine.


Import Dependency in India

  1. India heavily imports critical and deep-seated minerals.
  2. 100% dependency on minerals like lithium, cobalt.
  3. High dependency on copper, zinc, gold, etc.


India\’s Status

  1. India is a major producer of iron ore and coal.
  2. Mineral demand projected to rise due to electrification and economic growth.


Challenges with Import Dependency

  1. Vulnerability in supply chains, potential disruptions.
  2. Rising import costs.


Private Sector Participation Crucial

  1. Geological potential in India for valuable minerals.
  2. Limited exploration, government dominance.
  3. Specialized techniques needed for exploration.


MMDR Amendment Bill Provisions

  1. Private sector can mine atomic minerals.
  2. Central government can auction mining leases for critical minerals.
  3. Exploration licenses auctioned.
  4. Maximum exploration area increased.
  5. Incentives for exploration licenses.


Benefits and Concerns

  1. Expands mining opportunities for private sector.
  2. Enables exploration activities.
  3. Raises concerns about delayed revenue, uncertainty, auction complexities.


Minimum Age for Contesting in Elections-Revise it or not?


A proposal suggests allowing people as young as 18 to participate in elections, which is currently allowed from the age of 25.


The Representation of People Act (RPA), 1951:

  1. The Representation of the People Act (RPA), 1951, contains rules for elections, political parties, qualifications, disqualifications, and dispute resolution.
  2. Current eligibility criteria include being an elector in the constituency and age requirements.



Advantages of Lowering the Minimum Age:

  1. Encourages youth participation and innovative ideas.
  2. Increases political awareness and engagement among young people.
  3. Adds diversity and fresh perspectives to leadership.


Disadvantages of Lowering the Minimum Age:

  1. Young candidates might lack experience and maturity.
  2. Limited understanding of governance and policy.
  3. Vulnerability to external influence and potential for ineffective representation.


Election Commission\’s Opinion:

  1. The Election Commission disagrees, citing lack of experience and maturity among 18-year-olds for handling significant responsibilities.


Other Proposals by the Committee:

  1. Unified electoral roll discussed, caution advised due to federalism principles.
  2. Concerns raised about linking Aadhaar and Voter IDs for non-citizens.
  3. Proposal for remote voting to involve internal migrants in elections.



The committee recommends tougher penalties for providing false information during the electoral process, aligning with existing provisions in the Representation of People Act, 1951.


Meri LiFE, Mera Swachh Shehar Campaign


Courtesy: PIB

Overview: The \’Meri LiFE, Mera Swachh Shehar\’ campaign is a collaborative effort between Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) and Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), launched on May 15, 2023, until June 5, 2023, World Environment Day.


Key Highlights:

  1. Empowers Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) to establish \’Reduce, Reuse, Recycle\’ (RRR) Centers.
  2. Operates under SBM-U 2.0 as a public outreach initiative.
  3. Encourages adoption of RRR practices among citizens, institutions, and businesses.
  4. Focuses on integrating RRR into urban sanitation for a circular economy.
  5. Drives behavior change for a cleaner, greener environment.
  6. Initiatives include door-to-door awareness, social media campaigns, and influencer engagement.


RRR Centers:

  1. One-stop hubs for depositing items like plastic, clothes, books, toys, and shoes.
  2. Participation in mega collection drives for old and unused items.
  3. Over 7000 RRR Centers across cities and states.
  4. Door-to-door collection of various items.
  5. Promotes recycling, reuse, and resource conservation.
  6. Utilizes innovative methods like videos and geo-tagging.
  7. Supports a circular economy through repurposing items.
  8. Creates spaces for education, recreation, and youth involvement.
  9. Aims for expansion to more cities.


GS Paper 3

Genetic Diversity in the Indian Population: Study Findings

  1. Genetic study reveals stark differences between Indian subcontinent regions.
  2. Endogamous practices contribute to genetic patterns among communities.
  3. South Asian cohort shows higher frequency of homozygous genotypes, potential health risks.
  4. Understanding genetic diversity crucial for targeted health interventions and protection from exploitation.


Importance of Detailed Indian Genome Map

  1. India\’s diverse population requires detailed genome map for various reasons.
  2. Enables understanding of health disparities, guides interventions.
  3. Protects vulnerable communities from exploitation, aids population health efforts.


India\’s Sugar Surplus and its corresponding Impact on Agriculture


Courtesy: AIRNEWS


India has become the world\’s top sugar producer, which is good, but it\’s causing some problems. Too much sugar production is using up important resources like water, and this could lead to trouble in the future. The government\’s policies and subsidies to promote sugarcane farming have led to a surplus of sugar. While this has boosted exports, other countries have complained, saying it\’s not fair. To solve this, the government is turning extra sugar into ethanol, which can be used in various industries, including making fuel for vehicles.


Factors Behind Excessive Sugar Production:

  1. Government policies promoting sugarcane cultivation, including the fair and remunerative price (FRP) scheme and subsidies.
  2. These policies have led to a significant sugar surplus and record-level exports.


Global Scrutiny and WTO Ruling:

  1. Other countries like Brazil, Australia, and Guatemala raised objections with the World Trade Organization (WTO), claiming India\’s export subsidies violated trade rules.
  2. WTO ruled against India, highlighting the international impact of the sugar surplus.


Ethanol as a Solution:

  1. India is diverting excess sugar to ethanol production, which has various uses, including reducing emissions from vehicles.
  2. The Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) program aims to blend 20% ethanol with petrol by 2025.


Environmental Concerns and Groundwater Depletion:

  1. Intensive sugarcane cultivation is depleting groundwater resources.
  2. Cultivating 100 kg of sugar requires a huge amount of groundwater.


Sustainable Solutions:

  1. Balancing economic gains with environmental responsibility is crucial.
  2. Diversified subsidy schemes can encourage farmers to grow different crops.
  3. Environmentally conscious practices like drip irrigation can reduce water consumption.
  4. Comprehensive water management and investment in research are important.



India\’s success in sugar production must be balanced with sustainability. By reassessing policies, promoting diverse cultivation, and using eco-friendly practices, India can ensure a resilient agricultural sector for the future.


SpaceX\’s Starlink Monopoly in Low-Earth Orbit



SpaceX, owned by Elon Musk, has launched a project called Starlink. This project aims to provide internet all around the world using satellites. This is a big deal because it\’s hard to make satellites that work well for this. Starlink has many satellites in space, and this helps it provide fast internet. However, some people worry that relying too much on Starlink could cause problems, especially during conflicts between countries..


Starlink\’s Rise:

  1. Musk\’s SpaceX revolutionized satellite internet with a constellation of improved satellites in LEO.
  2. Higher speeds and lower latency brought satellite internet closer to traditional broadband quality.
  3. Starlink dominates the LEO sector with over 7,500 active satellites.


Concerns and Examples:

  1. Integration of Starlink technology into military applications during the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
  2. Remote control capabilities and potential risks of a single entity controlling communication infrastructure.


Dependence and Control:

  1. Internet connectivity pivotal in conflict areas, control lies with the company.
  2. Ukrainian authorities required Starlink\’s approval for communication access, leading to dependence.


Monopoly and Regulation:

  1. Starlink\’s dominant position raises questions about regulation and control of space-based communication.
  2. Starlink\’s role in Iran\’s internet shutdown and activism showcases its influence.


Towards a Solution:

  1. Need for alternative LEO satellite constellations to mitigate risks of relying on a single entity.
  2. Initiatives by the European Union and China signal steps in the right direction.


Balancing Innovation and Responsibility:

  1. Starlink\’s innovation contrasts with concerns about control, accountability, and geopolitical implications.
  2. Diversification, regulatory frameworks, and international cooperation essential for responsible space communication.



Starlink\’s remarkable project raises significant concerns about control, accountability, and geopolitical implications in space-based communication. Ensuring responsible governance and equitable access is crucial as space communication expands.


GSAT 24 Satellite Utilization




Tata Play initiates the use of GSAT-24 satellite, developed through collaboration with New Space India Limited (NSIL), aligning with \’Make in India\’ vision.


Key Points:

  1. GSAT-24 is a 4,180 kg 24-Ku band communication satellite by ISRO for NSIL.
  2. Successfully deployed into a geostationary orbit via Ariane 5 rocket.
  3. Supports DTH applications with pan-India coverage.
  4. Represents NSIL\’s first demand-driven communication satellite mission.
  5. Utilizes ISRO\’s I-3k Bus platform.
  6. Expected operational lifespan of 15 years.


Classes of Indian Satellites

Types of Satellites:

  1. Communication Satellites: Telecommunication, broadcasting, disaster warning (e.g., GSAT-15, GSAT-19).
  2. Earth Observation Satellites: Land, water, atmospheric monitoring (e.g., CARTOSAT, RESOURCESAT).
  3. Scientific Spacecraft: Astronomy, planetary sciences (e.g., Astrosat, Chandrayaan).
  4. Navigation Satellites: Civil aviation, precise positioning (e.g., NavIC).
  5. Experimental Satellites: Scientific and technological experiments (e.g., RISAT, AISAT).
  6. Small Satellites: Earth imaging, research (e.g., Microsat, Anusat).
  7. Student Satellites: Educational nano/pico satellites (e.g., STUDSAT, Sathyabamasat).


Swathi Weapon Locating Radar (WLR)



Overview: The Indian Army employs Swathi WLR (Mountains) for locating enemy artillery and enhancing combat capabilities.



  1. Developed in India, a mobile artillery-locating phased array radar.
  2. Detects and tracks incoming artillery, rockets, and mortars.
  3. Identifies counter-battery fire origin.
  4. Jointly developed by LRDE and BEL, employing passive electronically scanned array radar.
  5. Simultaneously tracks up to 7 targets.
  6. Offers real-time data, digital map display, and adaptive radar scheduling.
  7. Improves situational awareness and response time.


Performance and Tracking:

  1. Tracks artillery rounds, mortars, rockets.
  2. Monitors fall of shot for friendly artillery correction.
  3. Detects large calibre artillery rounds up to 30 km, rockets up to 40 km.
  4. Operates effectively in high-density fire zones.
  5. Utilizes adaptive weapon locating algorithm for improved performance.


2022 State of the Climate in Asia Report


Image Source: DTE

Overview The World Meteorological Organisation\’s report highlights extreme climate events in Asia during 2022, including high temperatures, floods, droughts, and cyclones, impacting socioeconomic aspects.


Global Climate

  1. 2022 mean temperature 1.15°C above pre-industrial average.
  2. Ocean heat content, global sea level increased due to warming and ice loss.



  1. 2022 among hottest years on record.
  2. Regions like Siberia, Central Asia, Western China experienced high temperatures.



  1. Deficits in Iraq, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Korean Peninsula.
  2. Excessive rainfall in Pakistan, Southeast Asia, northeast China.
  3. Central India, Himalayas had high precipitation.
  4. Floods in India, Pakistan displaced millions, damaged agriculture.



  1. High Mountain Asia glaciers saw mass reduction.
  2. Urumqi Glacier No. 1 had second most negative mass balance.


Extreme Events: Cyclones

  1. 25 tropical cyclones formed in western North Pacific, South China Sea.
  2. Nanmadol typhoon affected Japan, causing evacuations, damage.



  1. Pakistan floods displaced 14% population, caused deaths.
  2. Monsoon affected India, Bangladesh, causing destruction.
  3. India\’s worst natural disaster in 2022.



  1. Yangtze River basin in China had severe drought.
  2. Iran faced third consecutive year of drought.


Economic Impact

  1. Floods caused economic losses in Pakistan, China, India.
  2. Droughts in China, Iran led to significant economic damage.
  3. Cyclones had milder economic impact compared to previous years.


Prelims Related Facts

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)


Courtesy: MoEFCC

Overview: NTCA, under Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC), established in 2006 to implement Project Tiger\’s guidelines.



  1. Improve management of Tiger Reserves by central and state governments.
  2. Facilitate adherence to Project Tiger\’s guidelines.



  1. Chairperson: MoEFCC Minister.
  2. Vice-Chairperson: MoEFCC Minister of State.
  3. Three Members of Parliament.
  4. Appointed members and MoEFCC Secretary.


Project Tiger:

  1. Launched in 1973 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS).
  2. Recognized globally as a significant species conservation effort.


Line of Actual Control (LAC)


Source: TheHindu

Overview: The LAC demarcates India and China\’s areas of control along their shared border.


Key Points:

  1. India-China border spans 3,488 km across Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, and Arunachal Pradesh.
  2. LAC divided into western, middle, and eastern sectors.
  3. Unofficially demarcated and lacks an official boundary.
  4. Territorial disputes and differing perceptions of the LAC exist.
  5. India and China have differing views on the LAC\’s length.
  6. Recent unrest in Myanmar impacts projects like the Trilateral Highway due to security concerns.


Rhesus Macaque

Overview: Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) is a species of Old World monkeys with wide distribution in South Asia.



  1. Medium-sized body with pink face and long tail.
  2. Used extensively in scientific research due to genetic similarity to humans.
  3. Adaptable to diverse environments, including forests and urban areas.


Conservation Status:

  1. Classified as \”Least Concern\” by IUCN Red List.
  2. Can serve as disease carriers, posing potential risks to humans.


Havana Syndrome

Overview: Havana Syndrome refers to a set of mental health symptoms experienced by US officials in various countries.

Key Points:

  1. Includes symptoms like hearing certain sounds, nausea, vertigo, memory loss, and headaches.
  2. First observed in Cuba in 2016.
  3. Reported incidents in multiple countries, including China, Russia, and more.
  4. Sudden bursts of pressure in the brain and other neurological effects.


Neyveli Protests

Overview: Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, experiences protests over NLC India Ltd.\’s mining expansion plans.



  1. Protests centered around land acquisition and its impact on agriculture.
  2. Farmers and political parties object to NLCIL\’s land acquisition, citing inadequate compensation and environmental concerns.


Location and Features:

  1. Located in northern Tamil Nadu, known for lignite reserves and electricity generation.


Land Acquisition Dispute:

  1. Dispute arises from NLCIL\’s attempt to take possession of acquired land.
  2. Farmers demand higher compensation as per the Land Acquisition Act.
  3. Questions raised about sustainability of mining on agricultural land.



  1. Highlights the need for fair compensation and sustainable practices in land acquisition and development.


Aces on Wheels: Promoting Wheelchair Tennis

Shiv Khanna and Aces on Wheels Shiv Khanna, an 11th-grade student, established \’Aces on Wheels\’ foundation to promote wheelchair tennis in India.


Initiative Background

  1. Inspired by witnessing wheelchair tennis at Wimbledon.
  2. Successfully hosted wheelchair tournament in Delhi.


Values Showcased

  1. Dedication to social impact, inclusivity, compassion.
  2. Support for underrepresented groups, empowerment.
  3. Determination and resource mobilization.


Iran-Saudi-Kuwait Dispute over Arash-Dorra Gas Field


Courtesy: The Hindu

Disputed Arash-Dorra Gas Field

  1. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait reject Iran\’s claims.
  2. Dispute ongoing since 1960s.


Arash-Dorra Gas Field Overview

  1. Offshore gas field in neutral zone.
  2. Produces natural gas, condensates.


Geopolitical Implications

  1. Potential impact on regional dynamics.


Nuclear Medicine: Diagnosis and Treatment

Nuclear Medicine Explained

  1. Uses radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment.
  2. Radiopharmaceuticals emit gamma rays for imaging.


Diagnosis and Treatment

  1. Detailed organ, tissue imaging.
  2. Targeted treatment for specific cells or tissues.


IMS-1 Satellite Bus Technology: Private Sector Involvement

IMS-1 Satellite Bus Overview

  1. Versatile platform for payloads, including mine detection.
  2. Developed by ISRO, transferred to Alpha Design Technologies.


Features of IMS-1 Satellite Bus

  1. Green building standards for environmental sustainability.
  2. Modern and heritage blend in design.
  3. Theme-inspired designs based on local landmarks.


Promoting Private Sector in Space

  1. Boosting industrial growth, self-reliance.
  2. Encouraging private sector involvement in space research.


Neerakshi: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle


Courtesy: https://www.siliconindia.com/news/newsimages/Ooqi04aA.jpg

Neerakshi AUV

  1. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) prototype for mine detection.
  2. Developed by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) Ltd and AEPL.


Features of Neerakshi

  1. Length: 2.1 meters, Weight: 45 kg.
  2. Tasks: Mine detection, disposal, underwater surveys.
  3. Endurance: Four hours, Depth: Up to 300 meters.


Importance for Coastal Safety

  1. Valuable for Indian Navy, Coast Guard, Army.


Amrit Bharat Station Scheme: Railway Station Redevelopment


Amrit Bharat Station Scheme Overview

  1. Redesigning 508 railway stations for increased private participation.
  2. Features: Green building standards, modern-heritage blend, theme-inspired designs.


Importance of Scheme

  1. Boosting industrial growth, self-reliance.
  2. Encouraging private sector involvement


Devika River Rejuvenation Project: Progress and Goals


  1. Devika Rejuvenation Project nears completion, inspired by Namami Ganga campaign.
  2. Focuses on liquid and solid waste management to restore river\’s ecological health.
  3. Financial allocation shared between Central and Union Territory.
  4. Empowers Panchayati Raj Institutions for community engagement and sustainable development.

Revised Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) Standards for Pharmaceuticals

  1. Indian government directs pharmaceutical companies to implement Revised GMP standards.
  2. GMP ensures consistent quality and safety in pharmaceutical production.
  3. New guidelines emphasize pharmaceutical quality system, stability studies, IT support.
  4. Aims to align Indian industry with global standards, address deficiencies, and boost confidence.
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