Daily News Analysis 05 August 2023 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for 05 August 2023: Government Efforts and Challenges in Preserving India\’s Cultural Heritage, The Pharmacy (Amendment) Bill, 2023, G20 Principles for Financing Cities of Tomorrow: Inclusive, Resilient, and Sustainable, G20 EMPOWER Tech Equity Digital Inclusion Platform, NIDHI Program: Fostering Innovation and Startups in India, Multilingualism and Education: Benefits and Challenges, Impact of Article 370 Abrogation, Inter-Services Organisation (Command, Control & Discipline) Bill, 2023, Aera Therapeutics\’ Protein Nanoparticle: Unleashing the Potential of Gene Therapy, Finger Minutiae Record – Finger Image Record (FMR-FIR) Modality, CHD1L Gene, Spike Non Line of Sight (NLOS) Anti-tank Guided Missile (ATGM), City Investments to Innovate, Integrate and Sustain 2.0 (CITIIS 2.0), Privileges Motion, Cauvery Water Management Authority, Manas Tiger Reserve, Ring Nebula, Jan Vishwas Bill 2023


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1

  1. Government Efforts and Challenges in Preserving India\’s Cultural Heritage


GS Paper 2:

  1. The Pharmacy (Amendment) Bill, 2023
  2. G20 Principles for Financing Cities of Tomorrow: Inclusive, Resilient, and Sustainable
  3. G20 EMPOWER Tech Equity Digital Inclusion Platform
  4. NIDHI Program: Fostering Innovation and Startups in India
  5. Multilingualism and Education: Benefits and Challenges
  6. Impact of Article 370 Abrogation
  7. Inter-Services Organisation (Command, Control & Discipline) Bill, 2023


GS Paper 3:

  1. Aera Therapeutics\’ Protein Nanoparticle: Unleashing the Potential of Gene Therapy
  2. Finger Minutiae Record – Finger Image Record (FMR-FIR) Modality


Prelims Related Facts

  1. CHD1L Gene
  2. Spike Non Line of Sight (NLOS) Anti-tank Guided Missile (ATGM)
  3. City Investments to Innovate, Integrate and Sustain 2.0 (CITIIS 2.0)
  4. Privileges Motion
  5. Cauvery Water Management Authority
  6. Manas Tiger Reserve
  7. Ring Nebula
  8. Jan Vishwas Bill 2023


Government Efforts and Challenges in Preserving India\’s Cultural Heritage

Context: During the Indian Prime Minister\’s state visit to the US, the Biden administration committed to repatriating illicitly taken statues and antiquities, reflecting the government\’s determination to preserve India\’s cultural heritage.


Antiquities: Understanding the Definition and Significance

  1. Antiquities are objects or artworks existing for at least 100 years, providing valuable insights into ancient times.
  2. Manuscripts and documents with scientific, historical, literary, or aesthetic value are classified as antiquities after 75 years.


Safeguarding Antiquities: Measures at the National and International Levels

  1. At the national level, India has legislation to protect heritage items, and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) oversees heritage sites.
  2. International efforts include the UNESCO 1970 Convention and UN Security Council resolutions protecting cultural heritage in conflict zones.


Challenges in Preserving India\’s Cultural Heritage

  1. Despite some success in repatriation, India faces challenges in preserving its cultural heritage.
  2. The ASI and government resources are limited, and smuggling poses a significant threat to heritage.


The Procedure of Bringing Back Antiquities

  1. Antiquities taken out pre-independence require diplomatic negotiations.
  2. Antiquities taken out after independence until March 1976 can be retrieved with evidence of ownership and UNESCO\’s support.
  3. Antiquities taken out since April 1976 follow a similar process.


Current Government’s Effort to Bring Our Heritage Home

  1. The government has made notable achievements in repatriating antiquities through diplomatic efforts.
  2. India\’s heritage retrieval has become an integral part of the country\’s foreign policy.


Recent Repatriation of Important Statues and Antiquities

  1. Notable antiquities repatriated from different countries, showcasing successful efforts.


Way Forward: Preserving India\’s Cultural Heritage

  1. A comprehensive nationwide survey is crucial to establish a reliable database of antiquities and foster a sense of value for cultural properties.
  2. Each identified item should undergo close examination, photography, 3D scanning, and geotagging.
  3. A unique identification number (UIDN) should be issued for each property for better tracking and management.


Conclusion: United Efforts for Cultural Preservation

  1. Preserving India\’s cultural heritage requires collaboration between the government and citizens.
  2. Stronger measures are needed to regulate and prevent the illegal trade of stolen Indian antiques.
  3. By working together, India can secure its cultural heritage for future generations and preserve its identity on the global stage.


The Pharmacy (Amendment) Bill, 2023




The Pharmacy (Amendment) Bill, 2023 has been introduced in Lok Sabha to amend the Jammu and Kashmir Pharmacy Act, 2011, pertaining to registered or qualified individuals under this Act. The bill aims to extend the applicability of the Pharmacy Act, 1948 to the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.


Key Points

  • Extending the Pharmacy Act, 1948:
    1. The bill seeks to extend the provisions of the Pharmacy Act, 1948 to the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Regulating the Pharmacy Profession:
    1. The Pharmacy Act of 1948 lays down regulations for the pharmacy profession in India.
    2. It mandates the formation of the Pharmacy Council of India and State Pharmacy Councils.
    3. Registration under this act is required for individuals to practice pharmacy legally.
  • Role in Drug Dispensing:
    1. The act is closely related to the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.
    2. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act requires the presence of a registered pharmacist with a license for overseeing drug dispensing.
  • Penalties and Imprisonment:
  1. Penalties and imprisonment are enforced for those who breach the regulations of the Pharmacy Act, 1948, and Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940.


G20 Principles for Financing Cities of Tomorrow: Inclusive, Resilient, and Sustainable


Courtesy: OECD


  1. G20 member countries endorse the \”G20 Principles for Financing Cities of Tomorrow: Inclusive, Resilient, and Sustainable.\”
  2. Voluntary principles to ensure efficient use of financial resources for urban development.


Suggested Measures for Cities

  • Revenue Augmentation Through Own Source Revenues (OSR)
    1. Introducing a local sales tax for goods and services.
    2. Implementing a business license fee for enterprises.
    3. Collecting parking fees in commercial areas.
  • Market-based Solutions (e.g., PPPs)
    1. Partnering with a private company to build a new city hospital.
    2. Contracting a private firm for waste management services.
  • Leverage Land as a Financing Solution
    1. Developing a commercial complex near a new metro station.
    2. Selling development rights to raise funds for public infrastructure.
  • Enhancing City Creditworthiness
    1. Implementing efficient budget allocation and financial reporting.
    2. Establishing a stable and transparent revenue collection system.
    3. Maintaining a strong credit history for past infrastructure projects.
  • Technology Interventions
    1. Implementing a Geographic Information System (GIS) for property tax assessment.
    2. Utilizing a SCADA system for real-time monitoring of water supply networks.
  • City-to-City Exchanges and International Cooperation
    1. Sharing urban planning strategies with a sister city to improve infrastructure.
  • Adopt Nature-based Solutions (NbS)
    1. Planting trees and creating green spaces in urban areas.
    2. Establishing urban gardens to promote biodiversity.
    3. Implementing rainwater harvesting systems to manage water resources.
  • Integrated Approach for Risk Reduction and Disaster Resilience
    1. Designing infrastructure with earthquake-resistant features.
    2. Constructing flood barriers and improving drainage systems.
    3. Developing emergency response plans for natural disasters.
  • Enabling Spatial Equity
    1. Building universally accessible parks and playgrounds.
    2. Initiating affordable housing projects for low-income families.
    3. Improving public transportation options in underserved neighborhoods.
    4. Establishing community centers that offer healthcare and education services.


G20 EMPOWER Tech Equity Digital Inclusion Platform



  • Launch and Source
    1. Union Minister for Women and Child Development, Smriti Irani, will launch the platform.
    2. Launched by G20 Alliance for the Empowerment and Progression of Women’s Economic Representation (G20 EMPOWER) with Ministry\’s support.
  • Aim
    1. Bridge the gender digital divide by empowering women and girls with digital skills.
    2. Foster their success in the technology-driven global landscape.
  • Features
    1. Available in 120+ languages.
    2. Provides digital skilling courses for women across G20 nations.
  • Significance
    1. Illustrates government initiatives for bridging the gender digital divide in G20 countries.
    2. Empowering women to participate in the digital economy and enhancing their economic representation.


NIDHI Program: Fostering Innovation and Startups in India


Courtesy: Mygov.in


The NIDHI Program, launched in 2016 by the Department of Science & Technology (DST), aims to promote a thriving innovation and startup culture in India.



  1. Promote Science and Technology (S&T) based entrepreneurship and startup ecosystem across the country.
  2. Nurture startups through scouting, supporting, and scaling innovations.


Key Components of NIDHI Program:

  • NIDHI-Entrepreneur in Residence (EIR):
    1. Inspires graduating students to pursue entrepreneurship through fellowships.


  • NIDHI-Promotion and Acceleration of Young and Aspiring Technology Entrepreneurs (PRAYAS):
    1. Supports innovators and startups from Idea to Prototype stage.


  • NIDHI-Inclusive-Technology Business Incubator (iTBI):
    1. Expands incubation programs to various geographies and genders.


  • NIDHI-Technology Business Incubator (TBI):
    1. Supports and nurtures knowledge-driven innovative start-ups.


  • NIDHI-Seed Support Program (SSP):
    1. Provides early-stage funding to promising start-ups.


  • NIDHI-Center of Excellence (CoE):
    1. Creates a world-class facility to help startups go global.


  • NIDHI-Accelerator:
    1. Accelerates startups through focused interventions.


Overall Goal:

The NIDHI program is an end-to-end plan that aims to double the number of incubators and startups in India within five years, fostering a robust and thriving startup ecosystem in the country.


Multilingualism and Education: Benefits and Challenges


  1. Multilingualism: Ability to speak, understand, read, and write more than one language.
  2. Importance: Plays a crucial role in cognitive development, cultural diversity, academic achievement, and social inclusion.


Benefits of Multilingualism in Education

  • Enhancing Cognitive Development:
    1. Boosts brain functions like memory, attention, problem-solving, and creativity.
    2. Improves metalinguistic awareness, reflecting on language structures and rules.
  • Fostering Cultural Diversity:
    1. Exposes students to different cultures, perspectives, and values.
    2. Develops intercultural competence for effective communication with diverse backgrounds.
  • Improving Academic Achievement:
    1. Students learning in their mother tongue perform better in school.
    2. Easier access to curriculum content and transferable skills.
  • Promoting Social Inclusion:
    1. Provides equal access to education for all linguistic backgrounds.
    2. Reduces discrimination and marginalization.


Effective Implementation of Multilingual Education

  • Choice of Languages:
    1. Based on learners\’ linguistic realities and needs.
    2. Respects constitutional provisions and National Education Policy (NEP) 2020\’s three-language formula.
    3. Start with the mother tongue or home language as the medium of instruction.


  • Pedagogy of Languages:
    1. Learner-centered and interactive pedagogy.
    2. Promotes cross-linguistic transfer and multiliteracy skills.
    3. Uses culturally relevant materials reflecting diversity.


  • Assessment of Languages:
    1. Fair and valid assessment tools for multiple languages.
    2. Provides constructive feedback and support to improve language skills.


Benefits of Multilingual Education for India

  • Enhancing Human Capital:
    1. Equips learners for education, employment, research, and global opportunities.
    2. Increases employability and mobility.
  • Preserving Linguistic Diversity:
    1. Helps preserve and revitalize linguistic heritage.
    2. Promotes linguistic rights and dignity, especially for endangered languages.
  • Strengthening National Unity:
    1. Fosters mutual understanding and respect among diverse language speakers.
    2. Enhances social cohesion and harmony.
  • Stronger Foundation for Learning Additional Languages:
    1. Solid base for learning national language and English, promoting multilingualism.
  • Higher Retention Rates:
    1. Understanding instruction reduces dropouts and improves completion rates.


Challenges of Multilingualism in Education

  • Lack of Resources:
    1. Insufficient resources, trained teachers, and appropriate curricula in rural areas.
  • Lack of Policy Support:
    1. Gap between policy and implementation.
    2. Need for coordination among stakeholders.
  • Lack of Awareness:
    1. Misconceptions and prejudices about certain languages.
    2. Preference for English as the medium of instruction.
  • Curriculum Alignment:
    1. Balancing mother tongues with standardized curricula.
  • Assessment and Evaluation:
    1. Difficulties in standardized assessment across languages.
  • Transition to Higher Education and Employment:
    1. Proficiency in widely spoken languages needed for higher education and job market.


Policy Recommendations for Multilingualism in Education

  • Adopting a Flexible and Inclusive Approach:
    1. Tailored to learners\’ needs and contexts.
    2. Inclusive of all Indian languages, including tribal and sign languages.
  • Developing a Continuum of Language Learning:
    1. Extending multilingual education throughout the educational system.
  • Strengthening Teacher Capacity:
    1. Providing adequate training and support to teachers.
  • Engaging Parents and Communities:
    1. Informing about benefits and involving in language policies.
  • Creating a Culture of Multilingualism:
    1. Celebrating multilingualism in public life and domains.



  1. India\’s LEAP – Language Empowerment for Achieving Potential.
  2. Support multilingualism, provide training and resources to teachers, and create an enriching educational environment.


Impact of Article 370 Abrogation


  • Article 370: A provision in the Indian Constitution granting special autonomous status to Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Abrogation in 2019: Historic decision by the Indian government to revoke Article 370 and fully integrate the region into the Indian Union.


Courtesy: Businesstoday

Reasons for Abrogation

  1. Socio-economic development and security improvements.
  2. Addressing separatism and militancy concerns.


Positive Changes:

  1. Decrease in Stone Pelting: Incidents reduced significantly; 618 in 2019 to 76 in 2021
  2. Injuries to security forces dropped from 64 to 10
  3. The decline in Terrorism Incidents: 32% reduction in acts of terrorism since August 2019
  4. Deaths of security forces decreased by 52%
  5. Reduction of 14% in “admission of terrorists“
  6. Enhanced OGW Arrests: Arrests of over-ground workers (OGWs) increased from 82 to 178
  7. Improved Law and Order: Only 20 law and order incidents were recorded in J&K in 2022
  8. Deterrence of Infiltration: Fewer infiltrations and armed forces personnel were killed.


Negative Changes:

  1. Targeted Killings: Increase in killings of civilians, particularly Kashmiri Hindus and outsiders
  2. Over 50% of civilian deaths post-August 5, 2019, in the past eight months.
  3. Low-Cost Drone Threat: Small weapons dropped by drones from across the border aid killings
  4. Alleged ‘Part-Time’ Militants: Engagement of ‘part-time’ militants by handlers in Pakistan for attacks
  5. Attacks on Hindu-Dominated Areas: Militants targeting Hindu-majority areas with IEDs
  6. Erosion of Trust: Concerns about security and safety among locals and minorities
  7. Fragile Security Successes: Security achievements overshadowed by persistent threats


Positive and Negative Changes in J&K’s Political Landscape after the Abrogation of Article 370

Positive Changes:

  1. Local Governance: Establishment of Panchayati Raj institutions, District Development Council (DDC) elections held in all 20 districts in 2020.
  2. Political Alliances: Formation of People’s Alliance for Gupkar Declaration (PAGD) with National Conference and PDP uniting.


Negative Changes:

  1. Complaints of limited power and influence for elected DDC members, delays in disbursing honorariums; Delays in holding Assembly elections
  2. Administrative Redistricting: Delimitation Commission redraws Assembly constituencies increases representation, and introduces reserved seats.
  3. Concerns about the accuracy and fairness of the delimitation process, and potential gerrymandering.
  4. New Political Outfits: The emergence of J&K Apni Party and Jammu and Kashmir Progressive Azad Democratic Party (JKPADP).
  5. The splintering of traditional political parties created a more diverse political landscape.
  6. ST List Expansion Legislation: Proposal to include new groups in the state’s ST list, aiming for broader representation.
  7. Protests and demonstrations by existing ST groups fearing dilution of political empowerment
  8. Transparency and Participation: Increased engagement of local communities in governance through Panchayati Raj.
  9. Concerns about the effectiveness and autonomy of local bodies under the new governance structure.


Inter-Services Organisation (Command, Control & Discipline) Bill, 2023

Salient features of the Bill:

  1. The Inter-Services Organisation (Command, Control & Discipline) Bill of 2023 aims to give Commander-in-Chief and Officer-in-Command of Inter-Services Organisations (ISOs) authority over personnel discipline and administration.
  2. The bill covers regular Army, Navy, Air Force, and other specified forces in Inter-Services Organisations.
  3. It grants disciplinary and administrative powers to Commander-in-Chief, Officer-in-Command, and authorized officers in ISOs, regardless of service.
  4. The Commander-in-Chief/Officer-in-Command is a General/Flag/Air Officer leading an Inter-Services Organisation.
  5. In their absence, officiating or designated officers can command and initiate disciplinary/admin actions.
  6. The Commanding Officer of an Inter-Services Organisation can also take similar actions for personnel under their command.
  7. The Central Government has the authority to establish Inter-Services Organisations under the bill.



  1. Empowers ISO Heads for effective discipline maintenance in inter-services establishments.
  2. Eliminates the need to send disciplined personnel back to parent Service units.
  3. Speeds up handling of indiscipline cases.
  4. Prevents multiple proceedings, saving public resources.
  5. Promotes jointness and integration among the three Services.
  6. Establishes groundwork for future Joint Structures.
  7. Elevates overall performance of the Armed Forces.


Aera Therapeutics\’ Protein Nanoparticle: Unleashing the Potential of Gene Therapy

Context: Aera Therapeutics has developed a groundbreaking protein nanoparticle for efficient delivery of genetic medicines in the human body, revolutionizing gene therapy.


Genetic Therapy Overview:

  1. Gene therapy modifies genes to treat diseases like cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.
  2. Mechanisms include gene substitution, inactivation, and Context of new or altered genes.


Current Genetic Therapy Limitations:

  1. Existing technologies struggle to effectively target and fix the genome in various body parts.
  2. Traditional methods use viral vectors and lipid nanoparticles but have delivery restrictions and cargo capacity limitations.
  3. Larger genes, like those required for CRISPR tools, face challenges fitting inside delivery systems.


Aera\’s Protein Nanoparticle Advancement:

  1. Aera uses human proteins originating from ancient viruses to form protective shells for RNA transfer.
  2. PEG10 protein, repurposed for gene-editing tools, forms the basis for Aera\’s genetic therapies.
  3. Capsid packages based on these self-assembling proteins may deliver gene therapies to different body locations.


Way Forward:

  1. Aera aims to tailor capsids to target specific organs or tissues effectively, focusing on the brain, heart, and muscles.
  2. About 50 of these proteins have been identified, with potential for more discoveries.
  3. Using naturally present proteins might reduce the risk of immune responses.


Conclusion: Aera\’s protein nanoparticle represents a fresh approach to gene therapy, offering hope for more effective treatments of genetic diseases. As researchers challenge traditional methods and explore innovative approaches, genetic medicine enters a new era, bringing improved quality of life to patients worldwide.


Finger Minutiae Record – Finger Image Record (FMR-FIR) Modality

  1. Recently, UIDAI launched FMR-FIR, an AI/ML-based technology, to enhance Aadhaar-enabled Payment System (AePS) transactions and tackle fraudulent activities.
  2. Key features include hybrid authentication, liveness detection, real-time verification, and robust fraud prevention.
  3. It addresses emerging threats of fraudulent activities involving cloned fingerprints and silicone-based fraud.
  4. Advantages include enhanced security, mitigated vulnerabilities, boosted transaction confidence, and technological innovation for societal welfare.


Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI)

  1. UIDAI is a statutory authority established in 2016 under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology.
  2. Mandated to assign a 12-digit unique identification (Aadhaar) number to all residents of India.


AePS – Aadhaar-enabled Payment System

  1. A bank-led model allowing online financial transactions using Aadhaar authentication at micro-ATMs through the Business Correspondent of any bank.
  2. Aimed to provide secure access to banking services for the marginalized, especially in rural areas, using fingerprint biometrics during enrollment.


CHD1L Gene

About the gene:

  1. The CHD1L gene encodes Chromodomain Helicase DNA Binding Protein 1 Like, essential for gene expression and DNA repair.
  2. Holds promise in combatting HIV, with an African variant reducing viral load.
  3. Experiments reveal CHD1L gene activity in macrophages inhibits HIV replication.
  4. Deepens understanding of DNA maintenance, genome stability, and their impact on health and disease.


Spike Non Line of Sight (NLOS) Anti-tank Guided Missile (ATGM)


Courtesy: https://cdn.defence24.pl/2020/05/08/1920xpx/qa09w9-spikefamily.jpg

Spike NLOS Variant:

  1. The Spike NLOS variant, an extended-range version of Israel\’s Spike anti-tank guided missile, has a range of up to 25 km.
  2. Deployable from ground launchers and helicopters.
  3. Rafael is improving the missile\’s seeker and warhead capabilities to cater to specific operational requirements.


Other anti-tank Missile systems in India:

  1. Nag Missile System: An indigenous fire-and-forget ATGM with a range of up to 4 km.
  2. Milan ATGM: A French-designed ATGM in service with the Indian Army, capable of engaging armored targets at ranges of several kilometers.
  3. Konkurs-M: A Russian-origin ATGM used by the Indian Army, offering a range of about 4 km.
  4. HELINA: A helicopter-launched ATGM developed indigenously by India, capable of striking armored targets at extended ranges.
  5. SANT: An indigenous standoff ATGM designed for aircraft, currently under development.


City Investments to Innovate, Integrate and Sustain 2.0 (CITIIS 2.0)

  1. Part of the Smart Cities Mission, it aims to promote integrated waste management and climate-oriented reform actions.
  2. Focused on sustainable mobility, public open spaces, urban e-governance, and social innovation for low-income settlements.
  3. To be implemented for four years through online functionality on the Government e-Marketplace (GeM) portal.


Privileges Motion

What is the Motion about?

  1. Parliamentary privilege grants MPs certain rights for effective Parliament functioning.
  2. The Chairman of Rajya Sabha referred complaints against Raghav Chadha and Derek O\’Brien to the Privileges Committee for consideration.
  3. The Privileges Committee is a standing committee with semi-judicial roles, investigating breaches of House and member privileges.


Cauvery Water Management Authority


  1. The Cauvery Water Management Authority was established based on the Cauvery Management Scheme approved by the Supreme Court.
  2. Ensures the implementation and compliance of the Supreme Court\’s orders concerning the storage, apportionment, regulation, and control of Cauvery river waters.


Manas Tiger Reserve

About Manas Tiger Reserve:

  1. A protected area and wildlife sanctuary located in Assam, India.
  2. Included in India\’s First Tiger Reserves under Project Tiger in 1973.
  3. Declared a Biosphere Reserve in 1989, covering a substantial area.


Ring Nebula

What is the Ring Nebula?

  1. A celestial object known for its striking appearance, a glowing, donut-shaped cloud of gas and dust located in space.
  2. Images captured by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).
  3. Discovered by the French astronomer Antoine Darquier de Pellepoix in 1779.


Jan Vishwas Bill 2023

  1. The recent Jan Vishwas Bill 2023 proposes the decriminalisation of sections related to penalties and imprisonment of the Pharmacy Act, 1948, and Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940.
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