Daily News Analysis 02 and 03 July 2023

Table of Contents


  1. A case of unchecked power to restrict e-free speech

Facts for Prelims

  1. Ashadha Purnima
  2. Ol Chiki script
  3. Octopus nursery

A case of unchecked power to restrict e-free speech


On June 30, 2023, the Karnataka High Court dismissed Twitter\’s challenge to blocking orders issued by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). The court criticized Twitter\’s non-compliance and imposed a hefty fine of ₹50 lakh.

Ignorance of procedural safeguards:

  1. Section 69A of the Information Technology Act empowers the state to issue blocking orders.
  2. The Shreya Singhal case established procedural safeguards, including notice to the intermediary and recording a reasoned order.

Absence of procedural safeguards:

  1. The Karnataka High Court held that notice to users of blocked content is not necessary.
  2. Without procedural safeguards, restrictions on free speech can be imposed without oversight or the opportunity to challenge them.

Discretionary power of the state:

  1. The court acknowledged that blocking orders affect user rights but deemed user notice unnecessary.
  2. The court stated that users can access appropriate remedies without Twitter\’s intervention, disregarding the reality of obtaining blocking orders.

Inaccurate observations and user claims:

  1. The court falsely claimed that no affected users approached the High Court, overlooking an application filed by a human rights activist.
  2. The court\’s requirement for user identification and information provision diverges from the application of Blocking Rules.

Impact on free speech:

  1. Restrictions on freedom of speech must be based on specific grounds under Article 19(2) of the Constitution.
  2. The High Court cited \”fake news\” and \”misinformation\” as reasons for blocking, which are not valid grounds for restricting speech.

Rise of restricting digital rights:

  1. Misuse of false information to restrict free speech is increasing.
  2. Disproportionate internet shutdown orders and restrictions using the \”fake news\” rhetoric pose risks to fundamental rights.

Wholesale blocking and chilling effect:

  1. The High Court rejected Twitter\’s argument that only specific tweets can be blocked.
  2. Blocking entire Twitter accounts amounts to prior restraint and has a chilling effect on online freedom of speech.


The Karnataka High Court\’s judgment undermines procedural safeguards, erodes natural justice, and grants excessive power to the state. It hampers freedom of speech and expression and contributes to the trend of restricting digital rights based on false speech dissemination.

Ashadha Purnima


The International Buddhist Confederation (IBC), under the aegis of the Ministry of Culture, will celebrate Ashadha Purnima on July 3, as the Dharma Chakra Pravartana Divas at the National Museum, New Delhi.

About Ashadha Purnima:

  1. Also known as Guru Purnima
  2. Celebrated every year on the full moon day of the month of Ashadha according to the Indian lunar calendar
  3. Also celebrated as Esala Poya in Sri Lanka and Asanha Bucha in Thailand

Significance of Ashadha Purnima:

  1. Commemorates the first teaching of Gautam Buddha after attaining Enlightenment
  2. Took place at \’Deer Park\’, Risipatana Mrigadaya, present-day Sarnath near Varanasi
  3. Gautam Buddha taught his first five ascetic disciples (pancavargiya) on this day

Guru Purnima Celebration:

  1. Observed as Guru Purnima by both Buddhists and Hindus
  2. A day to show reverence and gratitude to their gurus or teachers

Rainy Season Retreat:

  1. Marks the beginning of the rainy season retreat for Monks and Nuns
  2. Retreat lasts for three months, from July to October
  3. During this period, they stay in a single place, often in their temples, for intensive meditation.

Ol Chiki script


Recently, the Prime Minister India for saluting the immortal tribal revolutionaries on Hul Diwas used Ol Chiki script of Santhali language.

About Ol Chiki Script:

Creation of Ol Chiki Script:

  1. Created in 1925 by Raghunath Murmu (1905-1982)
  2. Raghunath Murmu was a writer and teacher from Mayurbhanj State (now part of Odisha), India
  3. Developed as a writing system for Santhali, a Munda language

Alternative Names:

  1. Ol Chiki is also known as Ol Cemet\’, Ol Ciki, Ol, or the Santhali alphabet

Promotion of Santhali Culture:

  1. Ol Chiki script was created to promote Santhali culture
  2. It aimed to preserve and represent the Santhali language and its unique features

Publicization and Publications:

  1. The script was first introduced to the public in 1939 at the Mayurbhanj State exhibition
  2. Raghunath Murmu published over 150 books in Santhali using the Ol Chiki script
  3. The books included novels, poetry, drama, grammars, dictionaries, and other language-related information

Other Writing Systems for Santhali:

  1. Apart from Ol Chiki, Santhali can also be written using the Latin, Odia, Bengali, and Devanagari alphabets
  2. Different writing systems provide options for written communication in Santhali

Geographical Distribution:

  1. Santhali language is primarily spoken in Jharkhand and West Bengal states in northern India
  2. It is also spoken in northwestern Bangladesh, eastern Nepal, and Bhutan

Octopus nursery


Recently, marine scientists have discovered a new Octopus nursery off the coast of Costa Rica.

About Octopus Nursery:

Location and Depth:

  1. The newly discovered nursery is located nearly two miles below the surface of the Pacific Ocean.
  2. It is a deep-sea nursery, meaning it is situated in the deeper parts of the ocean.

Genus and Unique Trait:

  1. The nursery belongs to the genus Muusoctopus, a type of octopus.
  2. These particular octopuses do not have ink sacs, unlike most other cephalopods.
  3. Ink sacs are organs found in many cephalopods that produce ink as a defense mechanism.

Key Facts about Octopus:

  1. Octopus is a marine mollusk and belongs to the class Cephalopoda, commonly known as cephalopods.
  2. Cephalopoda means \”head foot\” in Greek, referring to the merging of the head and feet in these organisms.
  3. Octopuses have a ring of eight arms of equal length surrounding their head.
  4. They use their arms to \”walk\” on the seafloor and explore their surroundings.
  5. The undersides of their arms are covered with sensitive suction cups.
  6. Their bodies are sack-like and perched atop the head, which has two complex and sensitive eyes, while the mouth is on the underside.
  7. Octopuses have three functioning hearts.
  8. Two of their hearts specifically pump blood to the gills, while the third heart circulates blood throughout the rest of their body.
  9. Their blood is copper-based, which is efficient at transporting oxygen at low temperatures and gives their blood a blue color.
  10. Octopuses are solitary creatures and are highly skilled at camouflaging and concealing themselves.
  11. They are approximately 90 percent muscle and can squeeze through very small spaces due to their lack of bones.
  12. Their skin contains cells called chromatophores, which allow them to change color and pattern.
  13. Octopuses can be found in every ocean around the world.
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