United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

It is an international treaty which was adopted and signed in 1982. Both India and China have signed and ratified the Convention.

The Convention has created three new institutions on the international scene: International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, International Seabed Authority, and Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.

The Treaty grants coastal States sovereignty over their territorial sea extending up to 12 nautical miles, permitting foreign vessels to pass through under the condition of "innocent passage."

Additionally, coastal States enjoy sovereign rights over natural resources within a 200-nautical mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ).

Moreover, landlocked and geographically disadvantaged States are entitled to equitable participation in exploiting surplus living resources within EEZs.