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Here are the topics covered for 29th December 2023:
GS-2: Women – Ayushman Cards , Decriminalizing Medical Negligence
GS-3: Global Risk Survey , Pegasus Spyware
Facts For Prelims: Tokenization , Warli Paintings
- Approximately 49% of the 28.45 crore Ayushman cards and around 48% of authorized hospital admissions are accounted for by women, according to data released by the Health Ministry.
Female Utilisation of Ayushman Bharat
- Around 49% of the 28.45 crore Ayushman cards and 48% of authorized hospital admissions are attributed to women, as per Health Ministry data.
- The AB PM-JAY initiative, with a network of nearly 27,300 hospitals, has played a significant role in gender inclusion, with over 42% of beneficiaries being women.
- The scheme offers 59 packages and 77 procedures in obstetrics and gynecology, contributing to improved healthcare access and reducing maternal and child mortality.
- Obstetrics and gynecology are the second most utilized specialties after general medicine in over 15 states, emphasizing the positive impact on women\’s health.
- Other specializations like oncology (58%) and ophthalmology (51%) also show higher female beneficiary utilization under AB PM-JAY.
About Ayushman Bharat
- Ayushman Bharat is a comprehensive initiative advancing universal healthcare by integrating promotive, preventive, curative, palliative, and rehabilitative aspects.
- It features Health and Wellness Centers (HWCs) at the primary level and financial protection for secondary and tertiary care.
- The program aims to establish 1,50,000 HWCs, offering Comprehensive Primary Health Care (CPHC), covering maternal and child health, non-communicable diseases, and providing essential drugs and diagnostics.
- The Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) component extends health protection to impoverished families for secondary and tertiary care.
- The HWCs play a crucial role in promoting PMJAY, conducting screenings for non-communicable diseases, and following up on hospitalization cases.
- The initiative was launched with the first HWC in Jangla, Bijapur, Chhattisgarh, on April 14, 2018.
Decriminalizing Medical Negligence
- The recent amendment to the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS), exempts doctors from criminal prosecution in cases of death due to medical negligence.
Idea Behind Decriminalizing
- The Indian Medical Association (IMA) reiterates that doctors dedicatedly provide care to their patients and should not be punished for honest mistakes or errors in judgment.
- This will allow doctors to focus on providing care to their patients without fear of being sued.
- With the new amendment, medical negligence is still punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 2 years and shall be liable to fine.
- As per the new law, there are punishments and consequences but not criminal charges.
What is Medical Negligence?
- Medical negligence refers to professional misconduct by a healthcare provider, leading to harm to the patient.
- Consequences may include financial loss, health deterioration, emotional trauma, and permanent damage.
- In Bolam v. Friern Hospital Management Committee (1957) this case established the principle that a medical professional is not necessarily negligent if their actions align with the practice accepted by the IMA.
- In Kusum Sharma & Ors v. Batra Hospital & Medical Research (2010) SC defined negligence as a breach of a duty exercised by omission to do something which a reasonable, guided by those considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs, would do, or doing something which a prudent and reasonable man would not do”.
Global Risk Survey
- According to PwC\’s Global Risk Survey 2023, Indian organizations identify cyber risks as their most significant threat.
Highlights of the Global Risk Survey 2023
- Indian organizations consider cyber risks as the foremost threat, with 38% of respondents feeling highly or extremely exposed to it.
- Climate change (37%) and inflation (36%) follow as the second and third most significant threats.
- Digital and technology risks rank fourth, with 35% of business leaders in India expressing concern about these risks.
- Indian organizations are actively investing in cybersecurity, with over half planning investments in cybersecurity tools (55%) and AI-related technologies (55%) in the next 1–3 years, aligning with global trends (51% and 49%, respectively).
- Additionally, 71% of Indian organizations are leveraging cybersecurity and IT data for risk management and opportunity identification, surpassing the global average of 61%.
- The survey indicates a growing emphasis on using emerging technologies like Generative Artificial Intelligence, with 48% of Indian enterprises deploying AI and machine learning for automated risk assessment and response.
- The journalists of ‘The Wire’ received alerts from Apple indicating they were under “state-sponsored hacking” (subject to Pegasus spyware), prompting them to submit their phones for testing by the non-profit organization.
What is Pegasus Spyware?
- It is a zero-click mobile surveillance software designed to infiltrate iOS and Android devices to collect information secretly.
- Pegasus has extensive data-collection capabilities — it can read texts and emails, monitor app usage, track location data, and access a device’s microphone and camera.
- Pegasus was developed by the Israeli NSO Group to combat terror and crime.
- Since deployed as a cyber weapon in more controversial espionage attacks on political figures, well-known journalists, and other civil society leaders.
- As zero-click spyware, Pegasus can be installed on a target’s phone without the victim needing to take any action themselves.
State Sponsored Hacking
- States can utilize hackers either directly through official channels or indirectly, providing a layer of deniability.
- This approach minimizes diplomatic consequences and blurs the line between state-sponsored groups and criminal entities.
- Such hacking units often target entities perceived as adversaries for various reasons.
- Exploring corporate secrets, technologies, and confidential political information can undermine the defender, significantly weakening their defensive capacities.
- This tactic proves highly effective in disrupting political sentiments within a state, influencing elections, fostering resentment against governments or individuals, or shaping public opinion in favor of specific parties.
- At times, the primary objective is to assess the attacker\’s capabilities or gauge the preparedness of the adversary.
Facts For Prelims
- The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has expanded card-on-file tokenization (CoFT), extending it beyond merchants to include card-issuing banks and institutions directly.
- CoFT is a security measure for digital payments, replacing the storage of card details with unique tokens.
- The RBI\’s recent notification outlines the requirements for implementing CoFT through card issuers, enabling customers to generate tokens through mobile and internet banking channels with explicit consent and additional validation.
- Tokenization involves replacing sensitive data with non-sensitive tokens, enhancing security in digital transactions.
- Warli art is a traditional folk painting style originating from Maharashtra, particularly practiced by the Warli tribe in the Northern outskirts of Mumbai.
- This unique art form is predominantly found among the tribes in the North Sahyadri range of Maharashtra.
- Dating back to the 10th century AD, Warli art holds its roots in the cultural heritage of the region and continues to thrive in present times.