Daily News Analysis 25th Nov 2023 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for  25th   November 2023: 

GS-2: Rural Wages, Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository 

GS-3: Investor Risk Reduction Access (IRRA), Battery Waste Management Rules, 2022 

Facts for prelims: Emmy Awards , Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)



 Rural Wages


  • Recent data from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has highlighted significant disparities in rural wages across various states in India, emphasizing the need for equitable distribution and policies to address these discrepancies. The data indicates variations in earnings for both farm and non-agricultural workers.


Key Points from the Rural Wages Data by RBI:


  • Rural Economic Disruptions: The fiscal year 2021-22 saw challenges in the rural economy due to the Covid-19 pandemic, impacting employment and income levels. In the subsequent fiscal year (2022-23), elevated inflation rates and increased interest rates further disrupted rural demand, affecting job opportunities and income stability.


  • Rural Wage Disparities: In Madhya Pradesh, rural wages for both agricultural and non-agricultural workers are significantly below the national average at Rs 229.2 and Rs 246.3 daily, respectively. In contrast, Kerala boasts the highest wages, with rural farm workers earning Rs 764.3 per day. Kerala and Madhya Pradesh also show opposing ends of the spectrum for rural construction worker wages.

National Average Wages:

  • Agricultural workers: Rs 345.7
  • Non-agricultural workers: Rs 348
  • Construction workers: Rs 393.3
  • Stagnant Rural Income Growth: Despite occasional peaks in wage growth in 2022-23, rural income prospects remained subdued. The real rural wage growth stagnated, indicating an incomplete recovery in the unorganized segment of the economy. MGNREGA job demand remained higher than pre-pandemic levels, signalling an incomplete recovery, especially in the unorganized sector.


Major Factors Responsible for Wage Inequality in India:


  • Economic Development Disparities: Regions with varying economic development levels exhibit substantial wage differences. Industrialized regions tend to offer higher-paying non-agricultural jobs compared to agrarian-centric areas.


  • Policy Interventions: State-level policies on minimum wages, labour regulations, and social security schemes contribute to wage disparities. Stringent labour laws may result in higher wages but fewer job opportunities.


  • Market Forces and Demand-Supply Dynamics: Wage rates align with market demand for specific skills or labour. Regions with high demand and limited workforce supply in certain sectors tend to offer higher wages.


  • Cost of Living and Standard of Living: Variations in the cost of living directly impact wage disparities. Areas with higher living standards often offer higher wages.


  • Geographical Factors and Agricultural Cycles: Weather conditions and agricultural cycles influence rural work availability, leading to seasonal wage variations.


  • Migration and Labor Mobility: Labor mobility from low-wage to high-wage regions creates imbalances in wages, affecting both source and destination regions.


Related Indian Government Initiatives:

  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
  • Atmanirbhar Bharat Rojgar Yojana (ABRY)
  • National Career Service (NCS) Project
  • Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana- National Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLM)
  • Rural Self Employment Training Institute (RSETI)
  • PM Kaushal Vikas Yojna


Way Forward:

  • Agricultural Diversification: Encourage diversification in rural economies by promoting allied sectors such as animal husbandry, fisheries, and agro-processing to generate supplementary income.
  • Technology Adoption and Innovation: Integrate technological advancements into agricultural practices to enhance productivity, providing access to modern farming techniques and machinery.
  • Infrastructure Development: Invest in rural infrastructure, including better roads, irrigation systems, and connectivity, stimulating economic activities and job opportunities.
  • Focus on Migrant Workers\’ Welfare: Implement policies safeguarding the rights and livelihoods of migrant workers, ensuring fair wages, adequate living conditions, and social security benefits.
  • Promotion of Agri-Entrepreneurship: Encourage and support rural entrepreneurship by providing incentives, mentorship, and market access to aspiring agripreneurs, creating jobs and augmenting rural incomes.


Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR)


  • Recently, the Prime Minister of India made a significant announcement regarding two pioneering initiatives: the Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR) and a Social Impact Fund (SIF). These initiatives, led by India, mark a crucial step towards sharing global knowledge and resources in the realm of digital public infrastructure.


  • The GDPIR, created by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), stands as a comprehensive resource hub. It acts as a repository of essential lessons and expertise gathered from G20 members and guest nations, aiming to bridge the knowledge gap in designing, constructing, deploying, and governing Digital Public Infrastructures (DPIs).


Key Features:

  • Standardized Information: The GDPIR presents information in a standardized format, incorporating maturity scales, source codes (where available), and governance frameworks.
  • International Participation: Currently, the repository features 54 DPIs from 16 countries, showcasing a collaborative effort to pool global expertise.
  • Indian Contributions: Notably, DPIs from India, such as Aadhaar, Unified Payments Interface (UPI), DigiLocker, and others, are prominently featured, highlighting India\’s leadership in digital governance.


Understanding Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI)

  • DPI encompasses foundational elements like digital identification, payment infrastructure, and data exchange solutions. These components play a pivotal role in empowering countries to provide essential services, fostering digital inclusion, and enhancing the overall quality of life for citizens.


Role in Digital Governance:

  • Facilitating Services: DPI facilitates the seamless delivery of vital services to citizens.
  • Empowering Lives: It empowers citizens through increased accessibility and inclusion.
  • Foundational Frameworks: DPI acts as the foundational framework for efficient digital governance.


The SIF is envisioned as a government-led multistakeholder initiative aimed at expediting DPI implementation in the global south.


Key Components:


  • Financial Support: The fund offers financial support for both technical and non-technical assistance to countries in developing DPI systems.
  • Stakeholder Collaboration: It provides a collaborative platform for governments, international organizations, and philanthropic entities to contribute. This collaboration accelerates the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) through DPIs.


India has pledged an initial commitment of $25 million, emphasizing its dedication to supporting global initiatives and fostering digital empowerment on a broader scale.



  • The launch of GDPIR and SIF exemplifies India\’s commitment to global digital collaboration and inclusive development. These initiatives not only showcase India\’s leadership in digital governance but also signify a collective effort to share knowledge and resources for the greater good. As countries unite in this endeavour, the potential for positive social impact and transformative change through DPIs becomes increasingly promising on the global stage.


Investor Risk Reduction Access (IRRA) Platform


  • The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has introduced the Investor Risk Reduction Access (IRRA) platform at the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). This platform serves as a protective measure for investors in the event of technical glitches faced by a trading member or a stockbroker registered with SEBI.



  • The IRRA platform has been developed collaboratively by major stock exchanges, including BSE, NSE, NCDEX, MCX, and MSE. Its primary purpose is to mitigate risks for investors in the case of technical disruptions at both the primary and disaster recovery sites of trading members.


Key Functions:

  • Risk Reduction: It offers a safety net for investors to manage risks arising from technical glitches or unforeseen outages, ensuring accessibility even when the trading member\’s site faces disruptions.
  • Position Management: Investors can use the platform to close open positions and cancel pending orders, particularly during instances where the trading member encounters technical issues.
  • Collaborative Development: The platform is a joint effort of major stock exchanges, emphasizing a unified approach to safeguarding investor interests.


Timeline and Procedures:

  • Before migrating to the IRRA platform, trading members must attempt to restore primary and disaster recovery sites.
  • Trading members can request migration to the IRRA platform via email, either before or after the market session begins, with a minimum notice of 2.5 hours before the scheduled end of the market hours for the relevant segment.
  • Reverse migration is allowed once per trading day, with the request to be submitted at least 1 hour before the scheduled market closure for the relevant segment.


Need for the IRRA Platform:

  • The increasing reliance on technology in the securities market has led to a surge in technical glitches within trading members\’ systems. Such disruptions often result in trading service interruptions and investor concerns. 
  • The IRRA platform addresses the need for a backup service, particularly when trading members face challenges during crises or cyber-attacks.


Functioning of the IRRA Platform:

  • Trading members can utilize the IRRA platform when technical issues affect their ability to serve clients across exchanges.
  • Stock exchanges have the authority to activate the IRRA service independently, monitoring factors like connectivity, order flow, and social media posts to ensure prompt response to disruptions.


How the Platform Benefits Investors:

Once authorized to access the IRRA platform, investors can:

  • View and cancel pending orders across all segments and exchanges.
  • Square off or close open positions across different segments and exchanges, providing a mechanism to manage their investments effectively.



  • In essence, the IRRA platform emerges as a resilient and collaborative solution, aligning with SEBI\’s commitment to ensuring a secure and efficient environment for investors in the ever-evolving landscape of the stock market. Its implementation underscores the industry\’s dedication to adapting and innovating to meet the challenges posed by technological advancements, ultimately bolstering investor confidence and market stability.


Battery Waste Management Rules, 2022 


  • In recent news, the Battery Waste Management Rules, 2022 have been acknowledged as a positive step, but concerns have been raised about critical gaps that could hinder efficient and effective recycling.


Battery Waste Management Rules, 2022:

The rules encompass all types of batteries, including Electric Vehicle batteries, portable batteries, automotive batteries, and industrial batteries.

  • Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR): Producers of batteries are mandated to collect and recycle/refurbish waste batteries, with a prohibition on disposal in landfills and incineration. Producers may engage themselves or authorize other entities for these activities.
  • Online Portal for EPR Certificates: A centralized online portal facilitates the exchange of EPR certificates between producers and recyclers/refurbishers.
  • Online Registration: Online registration, reporting, auditing, and a monitoring committee are established to oversee rule implementation.
  • Principle of Polluter Pays: Environmental compensation is imposed for non-fulfilment of EPR targets, responsibilities, and obligations.
  • Recovery Target: Targets are set for battery material recovery: 70% by 2024-25, 80% by 2026, and 90% from 2026-27 onwards.
  • Environmental Compensation Fund: Funds collected under environmental compensation support the collection, refurbishing, or recycling of uncollected and non-recycled waste batteries.


Identified Gaps:

  • Labeling and Information Deficiency: The lack of comprehensive information on battery labels impedes effective recycling.
  • Design Complexity: Intricate assembly methods make battery disassembly challenging.
  • EPR Implementation and Budgeting: Lack of clarity on the budget allocated for collecting and recycling spent batteries.
  • Informal Sector Competition: Potential competition from informal collectors may lead to hazardous recycling practices.
  • Chemical Composition Changes: The shift towards less valuable lithium iron phosphate batteries poses challenges in material recovery.
  • Safety Standards and Handling: The absence of rules governing the storage, transport, and handling of electric vehicle batteries poses safety risks.


Addressing Gaps:

  • Policy Refinement: Mandate detailed information on battery labels, drawing from the European Union\’s Battery Directive.
  • Environmental Auditing and Standards: Strengthen rules requiring thorough audits for both formal and informal collectors.
  • Introduce policies encouraging standardized joining methods and eco-friendly materials.
  • Define clear guidelines for budget allocation by manufacturers for battery collection and recycling.
  • Allocate resources for research and development initiatives focusing on innovative battery recycling technologies.



  • Addressing these gaps requires collaboration among policy-makers, industry stakeholders, technological innovators, and environmental experts
  • A comprehensive approach, including policy adjustments, technological advancements, industry collaboration, and global learning, can significantly enhance battery waste management practices\’ effectiveness and sustainability.


Fact for Prelim:

Emmy Awards


  • The Emmy Awards are prestigious honours bestowed for excellence in television and emerging media performances. Unlike the Oscars and Golden Globe Awards, the Emmys exclusively acknowledge achievements in television.
  • The Emmy Awards were conceived in 1948, and the inaugural ceremony took place on January 25, 1949. Six awards were presented, including recognitions for the Most Outstanding Television Personality and Most Popular Television Program.


Types of Emmy Awards:

  • International Emmy Awards: Specifically for international shows.
  • Primetime Emmy Awards: Honors American television shows aired during primetime.
  • Daytime Emmy Awards: Recognizes outstanding American shows aired during late morning and afternoon.
  • Sports Emmy Awards: Honors achievements in sports programming.
  • News and Documentary Emmy Awards: Acknowledges excellence in news, documentary, and public affairs programming.
  • Technology and Engineering Emmy Awards: Celebrate advancements in broadcast technology.
  • Regional Emmy Awards: Focuses on regional television markets, covering state-to-state programming, local news, and locally produced shows.


Awarding Organizations:

Emmy Awards are presented by three sister organizations, each overseeing specific categories:

  • Television Academy: Administers the Primetime Emmy Awards.
  • National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences: Oversees daytime, sports, news, and documentary categories.
  • International Academy of Television Arts & Sciences: Responsible for International Emmy Awards.


 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

  • EIA, defined by UNEP, evaluates the environmental, social, and economic impacts of a project before implementation.
  • It includes comparing project alternatives, predicting environmental consequences, and proposing mitigation strategies.
  • EIA in India began in 1976-77, focusing on river valley projects\’ environmental aspects.
  • Initially, environmental clearance was an administrative decision, later formalized under the Environmental (Protection) Act 1986.
  • In September 2006, the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change (MoEFCC) introduced updated EIA legislation, which mandates environmental clearance for projects including mining, thermal power plants, infrastructure (roads, highways, ports, harbours, airports), and even small electroplating or foundry units. Notably, this legislation shifted project approval responsibility to the state government, depending on project size and capacity, unlike the 1994 EIA Notification.

EIA process:

    1. Screening: Assess project scale, location, type, and need for statutory clearance.
    2. Scoping: Identify potential impacts, mitigation options, and monitoring requirements.
    3. Baseline Data Collection: Gather environmental status information for the study area.
    4. Impact Prediction: Predict positive/negative, reversible/irreversible, and temporary/permanent impacts.
    5. Mitigation Measures and EIA Report: Include actions to prevent, minimize, or compensate for environmental impacts in the EIA report.
    6. Public Hearing: Inform and consult with nearby communities and environmental groups.
    7. Decision Making: Impact Assessment Authority, experts, project-in-charge, and consultants collaborate for the final decision, considering EIA and EMP.
    8. Monitoring and Implementation: Oversee project phases to ensure environmental management plan implementation.
  • Assessment of Alternatives and Mitigation Measures: Identify project location and technology alternatives, compare their environmental attributes, and create a mitigation plan with an Environmental Management Plan (EMP).
  • Risk Assessment: Analyze inventory, hazard probability, and risk indices as part of EIA procedures.

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