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Here are the topics covered for 23 August 2023: Toxic Femininity, Smart Phone, Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), Dibang Project, African Swine Fever, INS Sunayna, Madras Day, Cholera.
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
- Toxic Femininity
GS Paper 3:
- Smart Phone
- Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)
- Dibang Project
Facts for Prelims:
- African Swine Fever
- INS Sunayna
- Madras Day
- The discourse between the former RBI Governor, Raghuram Rajan, and the Minister of State for Electronics revolves around the efficacy and consequences of the Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme within the domain of India’s electronics manufacturing sector.
Manufacturing in India:
- India, boasting over 1.3 billion potential smartphone users, predominantly imported phones, especially from China.
- To promote local manufacturing, the Indian government, under “Make in India,” provided incentives and infrastructure support to companies.
- This strategy propelled India to become the world’s second-largest mobile phone manufacturer by 2022, with 98% of phones sold in India being domestically produced, and 16% of these being exported.
- Make in India: aimed to make India a global manufacturing powerhouse by inviting local and global firms to manufacture in sectors like electronics.
- The government streamlined regulations, offered tax benefits, and improved the business environment to attract investments.
- PLI: The Indian government’s PLI scheme incentivizes domestic manufacturing, especially in electronics.
- Manufacturers earn rewards based on increased production, encouraging local investment, job growth, and technological advancement.
- Import Duties: The Indian government raised import duties on smartphone components to promote local manufacturing.
- By increasing import costs, it aimed to boost domestic products’ competitiveness and stimulate companies to establish local production units.
What is Toxic Femininity?
- Toxic femininity is the rigid adherence to narrow definitions of womanhood, pressuring women to confine themselves to stereotypically feminine traits such as empathy, sensitivity, and grace.
- It demands women to be passive, sexually submissive, and derive value from beauty, reinforcing the gender binary for validation in patriarchal societies.
What is Toxic Masculinity?
- It pushes men to be emotionless and tough, toxic femininity expects women to be silent, nurturing, and aesthetically pleasing.
- Such a limited view of “womanhood” objectifies and negatively impacts women.
|Feature/Aspect||Toxic Femininity||Toxic Masculinity|
|Definition||Harmful traits or behaviors often linked to traditional female stereotypes that are used manipulatively or overemphasized.||Harmful traits or behaviors often linked to traditional male stereotypes that suppress emotions or promote dominance.|
|Common Behaviors||– Playing the “damsel in distress” constantly for manipulation or advantage – Using one’s gender to evade responsibility or justify harmful actions – Overemphasizing passivity or submissiveness||– Suppressing emotions and viewing emotional expression as weakness – Encouraging dominance or aggression – Belittling anything perceived as “feminine” or “weak” – Promoting the idea that men can’t be victims|
|Effects on Self||– Limitation of personal growth – Dependency on others for validation or support – Reinforcement of the idea that women’s value is in their femininity or vulnerability||– Emotional repression leading to mental health issues – Increased risk of violent behavior or substance abuse – Reinforcement of the idea that men’s value is in their dominance or lack of emotion|
|Effects on Others||– Reinforces stereotypes that women are inherently manipulative or weak – Encourages the perception that women should be protected, not because they’re human, but because they’re “fragile”||– Encourages aggressive or domineering behavior in personal and professional settings – Reinforces stereotypes that men are inherently aggressive or unemotional – Minimizes the experiences of male victims|
|Cultural Reinforcements||– Media portrayals of women as constantly needing rescue or being manipulative – Encouragement of “catty” or competitive behavior among women||– “Boys don’t cry” or “Be a man” mentality – Media portrayals of men as stoic, aggressive, or unemotional – Belittling of male victims or men who don’t fit the “tough” mold|
Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)
- The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) is set to reveal the results of the research award proposals it solicited. These proposals were focused on assessing the effects of different Union government schemes and public policy endeavours.
- Established in 1969, the ICSSR is an independent entity under the Government of India, dedicated to promoting and supporting research in social sciences.
- The ICSSR intends to fund roughly 500 researchers to undertake field studies in designated regions, evaluating various schemes and policies.
- An expert panel will assess these proposals, with outcomes to be disclosed shortly.
- Furthermore, the ICSSR has revealed its ambition to craft “Indian-centric research methodology tools” for analyzing the nation’s socio-economic transformations.
- The ICSSR, a leading entity under the Ministry of Education dedicated to endorsing and sponsoring social science research in India, has called for proposals from scholars.
- The aim is to assess the effects of 31 Union government schemes and policy initiatives.
- The state-run hydropower major, NHPC (National Hydroelectric Power Commission), has signed an initial agreement with RITES, a prominent transport consultancy and engineering company, for the construction of a railway siding for its 2,880 MW Dibang multipurpose project in Arunachal Pradesh.
Hydropower Potential in Arunachal Pradesh:
- Located in India’s northeast, Arunachal Pradesh has immense hydropower potential due to its mountains, rivers, and high rainfall.
- Arunachal Pradesh, with rivers such as the Brahmaputra, Siang, Lohit, and Subansiri, has significant water flows ideal for hydropower generation due to its geographical landscape.
- Arunachal Pradesh’s mountainous landscape is conducive for building dams and reservoirs. Hydropower plants generally involve damming water at higher elevations and releasing it to produce electricity.
- During the monsoon, Arunachal Pradesh gets significant rainfall, ensuring abundant water supply crucial for hydropower generation.
Facts for Prelims
African Swine Fever
- Since 2021, the highly infectious African swine fever virus has affected 49 nations.
- African Swine Fever (ASF) is a severe viral disease with almost a 100% fatality rate in domestic pigs and wild boars.
- It spreads via soft ticks and can decimate pig populations rapidly.
- The ailment first emerged in Kenya in 1921.
- INS Sunayna, the second Saryu-class patrol vessel of the Indian Navy, had its keel laid on September 25, 2007. It was first launched on November 14, 2009.
- The INS Sunayna was indigenously designed and built by Goa Shipyard Limited.
- The INS Sunayna is tailored for fleet support tasks, coastal and offshore patrols, ocean surveillance, monitoring sea communication routes and offshore assets, as well as performing escort duties.
- Assigned to the Southern Naval Command, the warship INS Sunayna is equipped to handle diverse roles such as coastal and offshore patrolling, fleet support operations, ocean surveillance, overseeing Sea Lines of Communication and offshore assets, and executing escort duties.
- On August 22, Chennai, formerly known as Madras, commemorates its founding day.
- In 1639, the East India Company (EIC) acquired the town of Madrasapatnam from local rulers, setting the stage for the evolution of present-day Chennai.
- During the British colonial period, the city grew beyond its Fort, branching out into the Black and White towns – distinct areas designated for Indians and Europeans.
- During Governor Elihu Yale’s time in office, the city set up a mayor and Corporation.
- Post India’s independence in 1947, the city retained the name Madras. Yet, the state was rechristened as Tamil Nadu in 1969.
- Further, in 1996, the city’s name transitioned from Madras to Chennai.
- According to UNICEF, Congo is facing its most severe cholera outbreak since 2017, with children being significantly impacted.
- Cholera is identified as a key contributor to the global epidemiology of diseases.
- In 2017, numerous regions in Congo, including its capital Kinshasa, experienced cholera outbreaks, resulting in nearly 55,000 cases and over 1,100 fatalities.
- Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease triggered by consuming food or water tainted with the Vibrio cholerae bacterium.
- Globally, it is a persistent public health concern and signifies disparities and underdevelopment.
- Cholera is a highly contagious disease that can lead to severe watery diarrhea.
- It can impact individuals of all ages and can be fatal in mere hours without treatment.