Table of Contents
- A people of an emerald isle, waiting with doosras
Facts for Prelims
- Al-Hakim Mosque
- Y chromosome
- Ketoprofen and Aceclofenac
A people of an emerald isle, waiting with doosras
Playwright George Bernard Shaw once described Sri Lanka as the “cradle of the human race” due to the originality of its people. This article explores the challenges and opportunities faced by the Indian Tamil community in Sri Lanka.
Ethnic Diversity and Identity:
- Sri Lanka’s population consists of various ethnic groups.
- The categorization helps understand the demographic composition.
- Indian Tamils are one of the minority groups, accounting for 4.2% of the population.
- They are descendants of laborers who migrated from southern Madras to work on the island’s plantations.
Contribution and Self-Respect:
- Muthiah Muralitharan, an Indian Tamil, is a renowned cricket player.
- His success represents the originality and achievements of the Indian Tamil community.
- Thondaman, an Indian Tamil leader, empowered and mobilized the community, instilling a sense of self-respect and importance.
Citizenship and Affirmative Action:
- The issue of Indian Tamils’ citizenship and belonging arose after several generations.
- Nehru emphasized that they should be considered citizens of Sri Lanka.
- This recognition was significant, given India’s own efforts to address caste-based discrimination.
Changes and Evolving Situation:
- The Sirimavo-Shastri Pact (1964) and the Sirimavo-Indira Gandhi Pact (1974) facilitated the repatriation of a large number of Indian Tamils to India.
- The majority of Indian Tamils on Sri Lanka’s plantations are now citizens with voting rights.
- Younger generations are seeking employment opportunities outside the estates, like Murali’s father.
Challenges and Aspirations:
- On-estate issues persist, including housing, healthcare, and education.
- Political aspirations of Indian Tamils call for remedial actions, such as power sharing and recognition as villages.
- A ‘Malaiyaham200’ event identified these needs and called for equal access to government schemes, services, and land rights.
Sri Lanka’s Indian Tamils, with their unique identity and significant contributions, should lead the way in embracing change. By harnessing the potential of Artificial Intelligence and participating in its development, they can shape a brighter future for themselves and their country.
Indian Prime Minister will visit the 11th Century Al-Hakim mosque, restored with the help of the Dawoodi Bohra community, during his first visit to Egypt.
- Location: The mosque is situated in Cairo, Egypt.
- Named after: It is named after Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (985–1021 AD), the sixth Fatimid caliph.
- Historical significance: The mosque was initially built by the Fatimid vizier Gawhar Al-Siqilli but later became a part of the fortifications constructed by Badr al-Jamali in the late 11th century AD.
- UNESCO World Heritage Site: In 1979, the mosque was recognized and inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- Construction materials: The mosque is primarily made of brick with stone facades and minarets.
- Layout: The mosque follows a triangular plan with a courtyard at the center and four arcades surrounding it. It has two minarets flanking the façade.
- Integration into fortifications: Originally located outside Cairo’s northern wall, the mosque was later incorporated within the city, with its northern wall and minarets becoming part of the fortifications.
- Monumental entrance: The main entrance, situated on the western facade, is grand in size and design, showcasing one of the earliest examples of projecting entrances.
Dawoodi Bohra Community:
- Overview: The Dawoodi Bohra community is a sect within Shia Islam known for their business and trading skills.
- Population: The community has a significant presence in India, with an estimated population of around 500,000. There are also Dawoodi Bohra communities in Yemen, Pakistan, and East Africa.
- Beliefs: Dawoodi Bohras consider the Quran as the word of Allah revealed to Prophet Mohammed al-Mustafa, and they live their lives according to its teachings.
Leadership: The community is led by their leader, known as the al-dai al-mutlaq (unrestricted missionary), who has been operating from India for the past 450 years, following a period in Yemen.
Recently, researchers have discovered that the Y chromosome possesses genes linked to ageing and lifespan regulation.
Y Chromosome and Vital Genes:
- Researchers have discovered that the Y chromosome possesses genes that are crucial for various biological functions.
- These genes are involved in processes related to ageing and the regulation of lifespan.
Neanderthal Genome and Y Chromosome:
- Genome sequences of Neanderthals, an ancient relative of modern humans, show signs of the replacement of the Y chromosome.
- The Y chromosome in modern humans gradually replaced the Neanderthal Y chromosome.
The Future of the Y Chromosome:
- In the future, the Y chromosome may lose its status as the “master of maleness.”
- Another chromosome could potentially take over the role that the Y chromosome plays in determining male biological characteristics.
What is a Chromosome?
Structure and Location:
- A chromosome is a thread-like structure found inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells.
- It is composed of proteins and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Inheritance and DNA:
- Chromosomes are passed from parents to offspring, carrying genetic information.
- DNA within chromosomes contains specific instructions that make each living creature unique.
- In humans, there are 22 pairs of chromosomes, and one pair is called sex chromosomes.
- The sex chromosomes are labeled as X and Y.
- Biological males have one X and one Y chromosome, while biological females have two X chromosomes.
Role of the Y Chromosome:
- The Y chromosome, also known as the “master of maleness,” determines the biological male sex.
- It carries genes that play a role in sex determination and other male-specific traits.
Ketoprofen and Aceclofenac
Recently, the Drugs Technical Advisory Board (DTAB), recommended banning the manufacture, sale and distribution of Ketoprofen and Aceclofenac.
- Definition: Aceclofenac is an oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
- NSAID: Medications used to reduce pain, fever, inflammation, and prevent blood clots.
- Treatment of non-inflammatory conditions like migraine, period pain, postoperative pain, and fever.
- Common NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, and celecoxib.
- Aceclofenac has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.
- Analgesic: Relieves pain.
- Anti-inflammatory: Reduces inflammation.
- Working Mechanism: Aceclofenac prevents the release of pain-causing and swelling-causing substances in the body.
- Used for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
- Provides relief from pain, stiffness, and swelling related to bone and joint conditions.
- Also used for headaches, toothaches, backaches, menstrual pain, sprains, and strains.
- Side Effects: Dizziness, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, stomach pain, indigestion, and diarrhea.
Definition: Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat pain and inflammation caused by arthritis.
- Relieves pain, tenderness, swelling, and stiffness in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
- Alleviates minor aches and pains from headaches, menstrual periods, toothaches, the common cold, fever, muscle aches, and backaches.
- Side Effects: Indigestion, dizziness, headache, nausea, diarrhea, rash, abdominal pain, etc.
Drugs Technical Advisory Board (DTAB):
- Definition: DTAB is a statutory body under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.
- Highest decision-making body on technical matters related to drugs in the country.
- Part of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO), the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) of India.
- Ministry: Falls under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- Advises the Central and State Governments on technical matters concerning the Drugs and Cosmetics Act.
- Evaluates drug safety, efficacy, quality, and regulatory policies.
- Conducts scientific reviews and formulates recommendations.
- Performs other functions assigned by the Act.