Daily News Analysis 19th Jan. 2024 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for  19 January 2024:

 

GS-2: Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2023, Walk-in Model, Iran-Pakistan

GS-3: Indian Innovation Centre for Graphene

Facts For Prelims: Disease X, Papillomavirus

 

Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2023

Context

  • NGO Pratham has recently released its ASER 2023: Beyond Basics. 

Key Highlights of the Report

    • For 14-18 years rural youth.
  • 86.6% are enrolled in either school or college. 
  • 84% of the young population have completed 8 or more years of schooling.
  • 56.4% and 31.3% are pursuing Humanities and Science beyond standard X. Only 0.7% studying agriculture. 
  • 25% still cannot read standard II level fluently in their regional language. 
  • Females have outperformed males in regional language. 
  • Only 5.6% of youth are taking vocational training
  • 95% of males and 90% of females knew how to use a smartphone.
  • The out-of-school rate for females in this age group is only 0.2%.

ASER Report

    • A citizen-led survey was initiated in 2005.
    • It offers insights into rural Indian children\’s education.
  • Beyond Basics focuses on awareness, abilities, activities, and aspirations of youth aged 14 to 18.

Walk-in Model

  • To eliminate tuberculosis (nationwide) by 2025, Tamil Nadu has taken a step forward by setting up a one-stop TB solution 

TB in Tamil Nadu

  • A recent survey in Tamil Nadu revealed a TB prevalence of 210 per lakh population between 2019 and 2022. 
  • This translates to 126 cases notified per lakh people in 2022 alone. 
  • The state aims to significantly reduce TB deaths and incidence rates by 2025 and 2030, respectively, as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. 
  • Early diagnosis and treatment are key to reaching these ambitious targets. 

Walk-in Centre One-Stop TB Solution

  • Over 100 walk-in centers have already been established, with the ambitious goal of expanding to all 424 upgraded Primary Health Centres (PHCs) across the state. 
  • What to expect at a Walk-in Centre:
    • Diagnostic tests: Both microscopy and Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) will be available, providing accurate and timely diagnoses.
    • Chest X-ray access: If needed, patients will be referred to the nearest community health center, government taluk hospital, or government medical college hospital for X-ray facilities.
    • Prompt treatment: Once diagnosed, treatment should begin within 24 hours to maximize effectiveness and prevent further spread of the disease.
    • Holistic care: Patients with TB will also be screened for other immunocompromising diseases like HIV, ensuring comprehensive care and improved overall health outcomes.
  • The potential of these Centres:
    • Increase TB case detection: Early diagnosis is crucial for effective TB control and prevention.
    • Improve treatment adherence: Convenient access to care can encourage patients to complete their treatment regimens, leading to better cure rates.
    • Reduce stigma associated with TB: By offering accessible and confidential services, the initiative can help break down barriers and encourage people to seek help. 

Iran-Pakistan

Context

  • Recent military engagement between Iran and Pakistan has disturbed regional peace and has put India in the spotlight. 

Iran-Pakistan Relations

  • Before the Islamic Revolution (1979) both Iran & Pakistan were allied with the United States and joined the Baghdad Pact in 1955, a military alliance modelled on NATO.
  • Iran even supported Pakistan during its war against India in 1965 and 1971.
  • Iran was against the liberation of Bangladesh and termed it as the disintegration of Pakistan. 
  • The change of Iran\’s leader who was a Shia led to the change in dynamics between both countries as Pakistan was a Sunni-majority. 
  • Since the Islamic Revolution, Iran become a sworn enemy of the US and Pakistan has become a close US ally in its neighbor. 
  • Iran (in its foreign policy) started exporting revolution to the Arab neighbors who were oil-rich kingdoms. However, Pakistan’s continued strategic ties with these Arab kingdoms increased animosity with Iran. 
  • USSR’s withdrawal from Afghanistan further deepened the differences as Iran supported the alliance against the Taliban (a Pakistani creation). 

India’s Stand

  • While acknowledging the incident as internal to Iran and Pakistan, India emphasized its unwavering opposition to terrorism and understanding of self-defense actions.
  • Strategic analyst C Raja Mohan highlighted the mirroring claims against Pakistan for harboring militants, similar to India\’s justification for the 2019 Balakot surgical strikes. 
  • Raja Mohan further interprets Pakistan\’s response as a multi-pronged message. It\’s directed at Iran, but also serves as a warning to India and the Pakistani Taliban, aiming to deter potential future cross-border attacks. 

Indian Innovation Centre for Graphene (IICG)

Context

  • The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has recently established the IICG in Kochi, Kerala. 

About IICG

  • It is India’s first Graphene center.
  • It is a joint venture between Tata Steel Limited, the Digital University of Kerala, and the Centre for Material for Electronics Technology.
  • It will support the Graphene-Aurora program to foster R&D, product innovation, and capacity building. 

What is Graphene?

  • A two-dimensional allotrope of carbon arranged in a hexagonal lattice like a honeycomb.
  • The heating of Graphite, Coal Tar, and Shellac in an inert atmosphere led to the formation of Graphene. 
  • It has been used in electronics, biomedical, defense, and ultra-sensitive sensors

 

Facts For Prelims

Disease X

  • The World Economic Forum has recently begun its session on novel ‘Disease X’.
  • ‘X’ refers to ‘unexpected’.
  • WHO introduced this in 2018 as an unknown pathogen that can cause a serious international epidemic.
  • It has been placed as a high-priority disease such as Ebola and Zika to raise awareness.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

  • HPV is the most common STI
  • There were about 43 million HPV infections in 2018, many among people in their late teens and early 20s. 
  • There are many different types of HPV
  • Some types can cause health problems, including genital warts and cancers. 
  • However, some vaccines can stop these health problems from happening. 
  • HPV is a different virus than HIV and HSV (herpes).

 

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