Welcome to TARUN IAS – Your Daily News Analysis for UPSC/IAS Exam Preparation!
Stay informed with relevant current affairs from trusted sources like The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, and more. Our daily news analysis includes Prelims Facts and Important Editorials presented in a concise and bulletised format. Get free daily updates at 12 noon (except Sundays). Don’t miss the Daily Revision Quiz to reinforce your knowledge. Good luck!
Here are the topics covered for 19 September 2023: Hoysalas Temples, Women Reservation Bill, Delimitation Commission, Generative AI, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI), Aditya L1 solar mission.
Table of Content
- Hoysalas Temples
- Women Reservation Bill
- Delimitation Commission
- Generative AI
Facts for Prelims
- Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI)
- Aditya L1 solar mission
Women Reservation Bill
- The Union Cabinet has approved the Women’s Reservation Bill. There was a demand in both Houses of Parliament for the passage of the Women’s Reservation Bill.
About the Bill
- The bill guarantees a 33 percent quota for women in both Lok Sabha and state assemblies.
- It stipulates that one-third of the seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes shall be reserved for women of those groups in the Lok Sabha and legislative assemblies.
- Reserved seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies, and the reservation for women will cease to exist 15 years after the commencement of this Amendment Act.
- The bill was first introduced in 1996 and has faced lapses and delays in implementation since then, including passing in the Rajya Sabha in 2010 but lapsing in the Lok Sabha.
The 1992 73rd Amendment Act
- Mandated one-third of seats to be reserved for women in direct panchayat elections.
- Implemented a rotation system within constituencies for reserved seats.
- This act primarily applies to local panchayat elections, promoting women’s participation in grassroots governance.
- It represents an earlier effort to enhance women’s representation in Indian politics, with a focus on local governance.
- The proposed 2008 Women’s Reservation Bill aimed to extend this reservation to national and state legislatures but faced challenges and has yet to be fully implemented.
Current status of women’s representation in legislative bodies:
- The number of women members in the Lok Sabha has shown a regular increasing trend in recent times.
- But women’s representation in legislatures remains low, ranging from 0% to 15%.
- The number of Women MP’s in Lok Sabha has increased from 8% in 2004 (14th Lok Sabha) to 15% in 2019 (17th Lok Sabha).
Many countries around the world have implemented similar measures to promote women’s participation in politics. Quotas and reservation systems have been effective in several countries in enhancing women’s representation.
The Women’s Reservation Bill represents a significant step towards achieving gender equality in India’s political landscape.
- Centre is considering setting up a delimitation commission for Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
- The Delimitation Commission is a constitutional body in India that is responsible for determining the boundaries and constituencies of various electoral areas, such as Lok Sabha (House of the People) and State Legislative Assemblies as per provisions of the Delimitation Act,2002.
- The primary purpose of the Delimitation Commission is to ensure fair representation of the population in these electoral bodies.
Key points about the Delimitation Commission:
- Constitutional Mandate: The Delimitation Commission is constituted as per the provisions of Article 82 of the Constitution of India for the delimitation of constituencies for the purpose of elections to the Lok Sabha.
- Composition: The Commission is typically composed of a retired Supreme Court judge as the Chairperson, along with the Chief Election Commissioner and the respective State Election Commissioners.
- Re-adjust the division of each state or union territory into territorial constituencies based on the latest census figures.
- Ensure that the representation of each constituency is roughly equal in terms of population.
- Freezing of Delimitation: Due to a freeze on the delimitation exercise until the first census after 2026, the number of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies has remained unchanged since the 1971 Census. As per existing law, the next delimitation exercise may be conducted after the first census to be taken after the year 2026.
- The State Governments have no role in redesigning the borders of constituencies.
- Delimitation is essential for ensuring that electoral representation accurately reflects the demographic shifts and changes in population distribution over time. It upholds the principle of “one person, one vote.“
- Delimitation can be a complex and sensitive process, often involving negotiations and discussions among political parties to ensure a fair and balanced outcome.
Transparency and Accountability:
- The Delimitation Commission aims to conduct its proceedings transparently and with accountability to uphold the democratic principles of representation.
The next delimitation exercise is expected to take place after the 2031 Census, which would likely lead to a reconfiguration of constituencies based on the updated population data.
- Three temples in Karnataka have been inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. The Hoysala Temples, as they are also known, will be India’s 42nd UNESCO World Heritage Site. Recently, Rabindranath Tagore’s Santiniketan, the university town in West Bengal, was also included as a world heritage site
- The Hoysala temples are a prominent style of temple architecture that flourished in the Deccan region of India during the rule of the Hoysala Empire.
- The Hoysala dynasty reigned from the 11th to the 14th century CE.
- Temples are mainly dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu
- Characterized by star-shaped plans, elaborate carvings, and sculptural reliefs.
- Star-Shaped Ground Plan: Unique feature where the temple’s floor plan resembles a star with multiple points.
- Lathe-Turned Pillars: Pillars were often turned on a lathe, resulting in a smooth and cylindrical appearance.
- Sculptural Details:Highly detailed carvings depicting gods, goddesses, mythological stories, and everyday life scenes.
- Mantapa (Hall): Elaborate pillared halls, often with open pavilions.
- The Hoysala kings were great patrons of art and architecture
- The Hoysala architectural style has influenced subsequent temple construction in Karnataka and neighboring regions.
Famous Hoysala Temples:
- Chennakesava Temple, Belur: Dedicated to Lord Vishnu, this temple in Belur, Karnataka, is renowned for its architectural precision and intricate carvings.
- Hoysaleswara Temple, Halebidu: Located in Halebidu, Karnataka, this temple is known for its exceptional craftsmanship and detailed friezes depicting deities and mythological stories.
- Kesava Temple, Somanathapura: A smaller but equally impressive temple near Mysore, known for its detailed carvings.
- Generative AI is poised to impact labour markets significantly, a new WEF(World Economic Forum) study paper said.
- Generative artificial intelligence refers to a class of AI models and systems that have the capability to generate content that is, in some way, creative or novel.
- Unlike traditional AI systems that operate based on explicit instructions or rules, generative AI learns from data and can produce outputs that were not explicitly programmed.
- Generative AI is capable of producing content that can be considered creative, such as generating art, music, poetry, or even writing articles or stories.
Examples of Generative AI Models:
- GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer): Models like GPT-3, developed by OpenAI, are at the forefront of natural language generation. They can generate coherent and contextually relevant text, making them useful for tasks like content creation, translation, and more.
- DeepDream: Developed by Google, this is a generative model that manipulates images in a way that accentuates patterns and features, often producing psychedelic and artistic effects.
- MuseNet: Developed by OpenAI, MuseNet is a generative model that can compose music in various styles and genres.
- Ensuring that the generated content aligns with human values and norms is also a critical concern.
- 23% Global jobs will change in the next five years due to industry transformation.
- Ethical considerations, such as potential misuse or generation of fake content, are significant challenges associated with generative AI.
- Businesses and governments must create an adaptable workforce.
- Jobs most at risk of disruption are those that involve routine and repetitive language tasks
- Jobs with a high degree of personal interaction or physical movement will be least affected
Generative AI has the potential to revolutionize various industries. For instance, it can automate content creation, assist in creative processes, and enhance user experiences in fields like entertainment, marketing, and design.
Generative AI is a cutting-edge area of artificial intelligence with a wide range of exciting applications, but it also comes with ethical and societal challenges that need to be addressed as it continues to develop.
FACTS FOR PRELIMS
Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI)
- IRDAI is an autonomous and statutory body formed under an Act of Parliament, i.e., Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999 (IRDA Act, 1999) for overall supervision and development of the Insurance sector in India.
- The Insurance Act, 1938 is the principal Act governing the Insurance sector in India.
- It provides the powers to IRDAI to frame regulations which lay down the regulatory framework for supervision of the entities operating in the Insurance sector.
- Section 14 of the IRDA Act,1999 specifies the Duties, Powers and Functions of the Authority.
- Its main functions include licensing, policyholder protection, setting industry standards, and promoting fair competition.
- Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Finance
- Composition: 10-member body (a Chairman, five full-time members, and four part-time members appointed by the Government of India).
- It collaborates with other financial regulators, encourages technological advancement, and plays a vital role in times of emergencies, ensuring the stability and growth of the Indian insurance industry.
Aditya L1 solar mission
- The Aditya-L1 solar mission is an ambitious space mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) aimed at studying the outermost layer of the Sun, known as the corona from a distance about 1.5 million Km.
- The satellite will be equipped with a suite of scientific instruments to observe and study various aspects of the Sun, including its magnetic field, dynamic behavior, and the influence of the corona on the solar wind.
- The mission aims to address fundamental questions about the Sun’s behavior and its impact on space weather, climate, and our technological infrastructure.
- Aditya-L1 will provide crucial insights into solar phenomena like solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and their effects on space weather, which can have implications for Earth-based systems including communication networks and power grids.
- The Aditya-L1 mission complements other solar missions by space agencies around the world, including NASA’s Parker Solar Probe and the European Space Agency’s Solar Orbiter.