Table of Contents
- The Maternity Benefit Act 2017
Facts for Prelims
- Barnawapara wildlife sanctuary
- Polar crown prominence (PCP)
The Maternity Benefit Act 2017
The Minister of State for Labour and Employment said that the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017 is being put into action by the Ministry of Labour and Employment. This Act gives women workers the right to paid maternity leave and requires employers to provide crèche facilities.
The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961
- The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 was passed to regulate the employment of women before and after childbirth and provide maternity benefits.
- It applied to factories, mines, and plantations initially, but later extended to other types of establishments.
- It repealed the Mines Maternity Benefit Act, 1941 and Maternity Benefit Act, 1929.
- Women were entitled to paid maternity leave of up to 12 weeks under this act.
- To avail the benefits, a woman must have worked for at least 160 days in the twelve months prior to the expected delivery date, without losing her job or wages. Violating the act could lead to punishment.
The 2017 Amendment
- Increase in paid maternity leave
- Eligibility criteria for adoptive or surrogate mothers
- Exclusion of women in the unorganised sector
- Impact of the amendment on women
- Positive effects of the increase in paid maternity leave
- Importance of work-life balance for women
- India’s standing compared to other countries
- Recommendations from global organizations
- Potential for reducing gender inequality and maternal and infant mortality
- Unavailability of benefits for women in the unorganised sector
- Discrimination towards adoptive mothers and older children
- Inequalities in implementation across different sectors
- Challenges Faced by Women after Maternity Leave
- Wage cuts, lack of support, and childcare issues
- Need for solutions beyond just maternity leave
- Addressing barriers to women’s employment opportunities
- Importance of bringing women into the workforce in the first place
- Comprehensive solutions beyond just maternity leave
Barnawapara wildlife sanctuary
Recently, the Chhattisgarh forest department has carried out a successful translocation of four sub-adult wild buffaloes from Assam to Barnawapara wildlife sanctuary.
- Chhattisgarh is taking steps to protect and conserve its state animal, the Indian Wild Buffalo.
- In February 2023, the Chhattisgarh forest department surveyed the Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam for the translocation of wild buffaloes.
- DNA samples were sent to the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) in Dehradun for necessary tests such as breed accuracy and suitability.
Key facts about Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary:
- Located in the district of Raipur in Chhattisgarh.
- The rivers Balmedhi, Jonk and Mahanadi run along the sanctuary.
- Major vegetation includes Teak, Sal and Mixed forest.
- Fauna includes Cheetal, Sambhar, Nilgai, Wild Boar, Sloth Bear and Wild Dog.
About Wild Buffalo:
- The Indian Wild Buffalo is the state animal of Chhattisgarh and is native to the Indian Sub-continent and South East Asia.
- They are mainly found in alluvial grasslands, marshes, swamps and river valleys.
- They are concentrated in North East India in national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.
- Conservation status: Endangered according to the IUCN and listed under Schedule 1 of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
Polar crown prominence (PCP)
An Argentina-based astronomer recently captured a structure resembling a wall of plasma on the surface of the sun.
About Polar Crown Prominences (PCP):
- Similar to normal solar prominences, which are loops of plasma ejected from the solar surface by magnetic fields.
- Occur near the sun’s magnetic poles at latitudes between 60 and 70 degrees North and South.
- Collapse back towards the sun due to much stronger magnetic fields near the poles, earning them the nickname “plasma waterfalls.”
What is a Solar Prominence?
- A large, bright feature extending outward from the sun’s surface.
- Anchored to the sun’s surface in the photosphere and extends outwards into the corona.
- Forms over timescales of about a day and may persist for several months, looping hundreds of thousands of miles into space.
- Made up of plasma, a hot gas of electrically charged hydrogen and helium flowing along a tangled structure of magnetic fields.
- An erupting prominence occurs when such a structure becomes unstable and bursts outward, releasing the plasma.
Recently, World Hemophilia Day 2023 was celebrated.
- World Hemophilia Day is celebrated every year on April 17th to raise awareness about hemophilia and other inherited bleeding disorders.
- The day is celebrated in honor of Frank Schnabel, the founder of the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH).
- Hemophilia is a medical condition that severely reduces the ability of blood to clot, making even minor injuries cause severe bleeding.
- It is mostly inherited and caused by a mutation in one of the genes responsible for making clotting factor proteins.
- Men are more vulnerable to hemophilia than women, and it is a rare disease affecting about 1 in 10,000 people.
Types of Hemophilia:
- Hemophilia A is the most common type, where a person does not have enough clotting factor VIII.
- Hemophilia B is another type where a person lacks clotting factor IX.
Symptoms of Hemophilia:
- Big bruises, bleeding into muscles and joints, spontaneous bleeding, and prolonged bleeding after surgery are some common symptoms.
Treatment of Hemophilia:
- The main treatment for hemophilia is replacement therapy.
- Clotting factor concentrates are slowly injected into a vein to replace the missing or low clotting factor.