Table of Contents
- Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs)
Facts for Prelims
- Global Report on Internal Replacement 2023
- Gekko Mizoramensis
- Data Governance Quality Index
Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs)
Karnataka Legislative Assembly elections’ results were released recently. There were allegations that Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) from South Africa were being used for voting.
Electronic Voting Machine (EVM)
Definition: Voting using electronic means to cast and count votes.
Two units: Control unit and balloting unit.
- Joined together by a cable.
- Control unit kept with the presiding officer.
- Balloting unit kept in the voting compartment.
- Polling officer presses the Ballot Button instead of issuing a ballot paper.
- List of candidates’ names and symbols available on the machine.
- Voter presses the button next to their chosen candidate’s name.
Invention and Implementation:
- MB Haneefa invented the first Indian voting machine in 1980.
- First used in 1981 in a by-election in Kerala.
- Commissioned in 1989 by the Election Commission of India in collaboration with Bharat Electronics Limited and Electronics Corporation of India Limited.
- Legal provision inserted in the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT):
Definition: Method to provide feedback to voters using a paper record.
- Allows voters to verify their vote, detect fraud, and audit electronic results.
- Contains candidate’s name and symbol.
Advantages of EVMs:
- Transparency and evaluation by the public.
- Difficult for hackers to tamper with.
- Cost-effective and environmentally friendly.
- Time-saving compared to paper ballots.
- Effective against bogus votes.
Concerns with EVMs:
- Lack of certification.
- Vulnerability to malware and hacking.
- Foreign manufacturing and potential influence on election results.
- Risk of data loss.
- Unsuitability for humid areas.
- Potential for fake votes.
- Implement procedural changes for credibility.
- Use VVPAT with printed paper given to the voter.
- Manual counting of printed ballots before announcing results if the margin is small and a recount is demanded.
Global Report on Internal Replacement 2023
The number of internally displaced people (IDPs) around the world reached 71 million as of the end of 2022, according to the recently published Global Report on Internal Replacement 2023.
What is the Global Report on Internal Displacement?
- Released by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), part of the Norwegian Refugee Council.
- Focuses on people who are forced to move within their own country’s borders (internal displacement).
- Does not include those who flee to other countries.
Highlights of the 2023 Report:
- The number of internally displaced people (IDPs) worldwide was 71.1 million by the end of 2022, a 20% increase from the previous year.
- Conflict and violence caused 28.3 million internal displacements globally.
- The conflict in Ukraine resulted in nearly 17 million displacements.
- Disasters led to 32.6 million displacements, a 40% increase from 2021, mainly due to the effects of La Niña lasting for the third consecutive year.
- About 98% of disaster displacements were caused by weather-related events like floods and storms.
- India had the fourth-largest number of disaster displacements, with 2.5 million people affected.
Pakistan had the highest number of disaster displacements globally in 2022, with 8.16 million people affected.
Recently New species of flying gecko found near Myanmar border named after Mizoram.
About Gekko Mizoramensis
- It is a species belonging to the subgenus Ptychozoon in the Gekko genus.
- There are 13 species of this subgenus found worldwide, mainly in Southeast Asia.
- Previously, only one species, Ptychozoon lionotum or the smooth-backed gliding gecko, was found in Mizoram.
Habitat and Distribution:
- The habitat of Gekko Mizoramensis extends to parts of Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Mizoram.
- They are arboreal, meaning they live in trees.
- These geckos are nocturnal, active during the night.
- They can glide from one tree to another using their specialized features.
Similarity and Differences:
- Gekko Mizoramensis is most similar to its sister species, Gekko popaensis.
- However, they differ in genetic sequences by 7-14% and also in their physical appearance and color patterns.
- The species is considered paraphyletic, meaning it includes multiple cryptic species.
- Gekko Mizoramensis, like other species in the subgenus Ptychozoon, has webbed limbs and a flat tail.
- These features help them glide through the air, although they cannot actually fly.
Data Governance Quality Index
The Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways (MoPSW) has secured the second position among 66 ministries in the highly influential Data Governance Quality Index (DGQI) assessment for 2022-2023 (Q3).
What is the Data Governance Quality Index (DGQI)?
- It is a framework used to evaluate data governance practices in various ministries and departments of the Government of India.
- It assesses aspects like data quality, security, sharing, analytics, innovation, and literacy.
Objectives of DGQI:
- Assess the level of data preparedness in different ministries and departments using a standardized framework.
- Encourage healthy competition and promote peer learning from best practices among the ministries and departments.
Three Key Pillars of DGQI Assessment:
- Data Strategy: Evaluates the presence and implementation of guidelines for data governance.
- Data Systems: Assesses the processes involved in data generation, management, and utilization.
- Data-driven Outcomes: Measures the extent to which data is utilized and shared for decision-making.
The DGQI framework, conducted by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) in collaboration with the NITI Aayog, aims to improve data governance practices and enhance data-driven decision-making across various government entities in India.