Table of Contents
- Dairy Sector in India
Facts for Prelims
- Gandhi Peace Prize
- Reef sharks
- INS Vagir
Dairy Sector in India
An app developed by Rajasthan Electronics and Instruments Limited (REIL) aims to enhance milk quality and transparency in India’s dairy industry. It streamlines operations at the village level, benefiting Milk Cooperative Societies.
The Dairy Sector in India:
- Verghese Kurien, known as the “Father of the White Revolution,” played a vital role in India’s success story in milk production.
- Dairy is the largest agricultural commodity in India, contributing 5% to the national economy and providing employment to 80 million dairy farmers.
- The liquid milk segment, which represents over half of the dairy industry, is expected to have stable growth (6-7%).
- The organized dairy segment, accounting for 26-30% of the industry, has experienced faster growth compared to the unorganized segment.
- 228 dairy cooperatives serve 17 million farmers, ensuring fair procurement of milk.
- Operation Flood facilitated the distribution of quality milk across 700 towns and cities through a National Milk Grid.
- This program reduced the reliance on middlemen and minimized seasonal price fluctuations.
- Milk production in India increased from 21.2 MT in 1968-69 to 51.4 MT in 1989-90, and it reached 210 million tonnes in 2020-21.
Significance of the Dairy Sector in India:
- India’s dairy industry has contributed significantly to economic development by ensuring food security, reducing poverty, and generating employment opportunities.
- Operation Flood transformed India from a milk importer to the world’s largest producer, reducing the need for imports.
- It has provided a regular source of income for rural households and improved their livelihoods.
Underlying Supply Constraints in India’s Dairy Sector:
Fodder Inflation and Supply Constraints:
- Fodder and feed account for 70% of milk production costs.
- Fodder development has been neglected in animal husbandry budgets, resulting in supply constraints.
- Only 4% of farmland is dedicated to fodder cultivation, exacerbating the issue.
Demand Destruction during the Covid-19 Pandemic:
- The pandemic led to a decline in milk prices, impacting farmers’ ability to invest in cattle upkeep.
- The effects of this demand destruction are expected to persist for some time.
Lumpy Skin Disease Outbreak:
- Livestock has been affected by lumpy skin disease, leading to income and capital losses for dairy farmers.
Cooperatives’ Limited Success:
- Dairy cooperatives have had successful operations primarily in Gujarat and Karnataka.
- Private players have gained market share by offering higher prices.
Inefficient Breeding Practices:
- Inefficient breeding practices result in low productivity and genetic variability, leading to reduced milk production.
- Many farmers still rely on traditional breeding methods and lack access to modern technologies for genetic improvement.
Government Initiatives to Boost Dairy Industry:
- Rashtriya Gokul Mission aims to genetically improve the cattle population and conserve indigenous breeds.
- National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD) strengthens infrastructure for high-quality milk production, procurement, processing, and marketing.
- Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme (DEDS) creates self-employment opportunities in the dairy industry.
- e-GOPALA app aids dairy farmers by providing information and services.
- Dairy mark logo boosts consumer confidence in milk and milk products.
- Addressing the milk shortage in India requires a comprehensive approach.
- Transient factors like demand destruction and lumpy skin disease may resolve over time.
- However, fodder inflation is an ongoing issue that policymakers must urgently address.
- Investments in fodder development and policies to alleviate
Gandhi Peace Prize
The Gandhi Peace Prize for 2021 will be conferred on Gita Press, Gorakhpur.
About Gandhi Peace Prize:
- Annual award instituted by the Government of India in 1995.
- Instituted on the occasion of the 125th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi as a tribute to his ideals.
- Open to all individuals and organizations, regardless of nationality, race, language, caste, creed, or gender.
- The award includes a cash prize of 1 crore, a citation, a plaque, and a traditional handicraft/handloom item.
- Can be given to institutions, individuals, and organizations.
- Recent awardees include Sultan Qaboos Bin Said Al Said, Oman (2019), and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (2020), Bangladesh.
Key facts about Gita Press:
- Established in 1923, Gita Press is one of the world’s largest publishers.
- It has published 41.7 crore books in 14 languages, including 16.21 crore Shrimad Bhagavad Gita.
- Recognized for its outstanding contribution to social, economic, and political transformation through non-violent and Gandhian methods.
Recently, a study carried out by over 150 researchers said that Reef sharks are disappearing — with the five most common species experiencing a decline of up to 73 per cent.
About Reef Sharks:
- Importance in Caribbean reef communities:
- Reef sharks play a crucial role in shaping Caribbean reef communities.
- They are the top predators in the reef ecosystem and serve as indicator species for the health of marine ecosystems.
- Their presence helps maintain the delicate balance of marine life in reef environments.
Habitat of reef sharks:
- Reef sharks inhabit tropical waters near coral reefs, sea grass beds, and mangroves.
- These areas provide them with suitable habitats and food sources.
Species of reef sharks:
- Several species of reef sharks can be found in Caribbean waters, including:
- Caribbean reef shark
- Nurse shark
- Grey reef shark
- Blacktip reef shark
- Whitetip reef shark
Threats to reef sharks:
Overfishing and targeting:
- Reef sharks are highly valued for their meat, leather, liver oil, and fishmeal, which makes them vulnerable to overfishing and targeted fishing practices.
Habitat degradation and destruction:
- The degradation and destruction of coral reef habitats, often caused by coastal development and resulting pollution, pose a significant threat to reef sharks.
Reef sharks are often unintentionally caught by unregulated and illegal fishing practices, where fishermen are unable to differentiate them from their intended target species.
Indian Navy’s state-of-the-art submarine, INS ‘Vagir’, is all set to embark on an operational visit to Colombo from June 19 to June 22.
About INS Vagir:
Launch and Sea Trials:
- INS Vagir was launched into the water on November 12, 2020.
- It began its sea trials on February 1, 2022.
- INS Vagir belongs to the Kalvari-class submarine series.
- Other submarines in this class include INS Kalvari, INS Khanderi, INS Karanj, INS Vela, and INS Vagsheer.
- INS Vagir is the fifth submarine of the Scorpène-class.
- The Scorpène-class submarines are a type of submarine known for their design and capabilities.
Built under Project-75:
- INS Vagir is built as part of Project-75.
- The project was undertaken by Mazgaon Docks Ltd under a technology transfer agreement with the Naval Group of France.
- The project was initiated through a $3.75 billion deal signed in October 2005.
Features of INS Vagir:
- Capable of diverse missions: INS Vagir can undertake various missions, including anti-surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, intelligence gathering, mine laying, and surveillance missions.
- Advanced stealth features: It is equipped with advanced stealth features to reduce its detectability.
- Weaponry: INS Vagir is armed with long-range guided torpedoes and anti-ship missiles.
- Superior stealth features: The submarine incorporates advanced acoustic absorption techniques to enhance its stealth capabilities.