Table of Contents
- Model Prisons Act 2023
Facts for Prelims
- WPI Inflation rate
- Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF)
- Burachapori Wildlife Sanctuary
Model Prisons Act 2023
The Ministry of Home Affairs has prepared the ‘Model Prisons Act 2023’ on the recommendations of the Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPRD).
About Model Prisons Act 2023:
- The Model Prisons Act 2023 incorporates relevant provisions from the Prisons Act of 1894, the Prisoners Act of 1900, and the Transfer of Prisoners Act of 1950.
- These three acts will be replaced by the new Model Prisons Act 2023.
- The act will serve as a guiding document for states to adopt and implement in their jurisdiction.
- Its primary focus is to reform and rehabilitate inmates and revamp prison administration.
Salient Features of the Model Prisons Act:
- Provision for security assessment and segregation of prisoners.
- Individual sentence planning and grievance redressal.
- Establishment of a prison development board to oversee prison-related matters.
- Promoting a positive attitude towards prisoners.
- Separate accommodation for women prisoners, transgender individuals, etc.
- Utilization of technology for transparent prison administration.
- Provision for video conferencing with courts.
- Implementation of scientific and technological interventions in prisons.
Punishment and Discipline:
- Provision for punishment and disciplinary action against prisoners who use prohibited items like mobile phones in jails.
- Guidelines for establishing and managing high-security jails and open jails.
Protection for Society:
- Measures to protect society from the criminal activities of hardened criminals and habitual offenders.
Legal Aid and Reintegration:
- Provision of legal aid to prisoners.
- Guidelines for parole, furlough, and premature release to incentivize good conduct.
- Focus on vocational training, skill development, and reintegration of prisoners into society.
Present Legal Status:
- ‘Prisons’ and ‘persons detained therein’ are under the jurisdiction of state governments as per the Constitution of India.
- The Prisons Act of 1894, Prisoners Act of 1900, Transfer of Prisoners Act of 1950, and Repatriation of Prisoners Act of 2003 are the current laws related to prisons.
- India has various types of jails, including central jails, district jails, sub-jails, juvenile and women jails, and open jails/camps.
Issues with Prisons in India:
- Existing laws mainly focus on custody and discipline, lacking provisions for reform and rehabilitation.
- Overcrowding is a significant problem in prisons, with poor conditions and inadequate facilities.
- Many inmates are undertrial prisoners, often from disadvantaged backgrounds.
- Privileges are sometimes granted to powerful individuals, contrary to the rules.
- Misuse of parole and remission provisions can impact public order negatively.
- Exploring alternatives to incarceration for non-violent offenders.
- Ensuring access to legal aid and justice for prisoners.
- Raising awareness about legal rights among inmates.
- Enhancing healthcare services within prisons, including mental health support.
- Creating gender-responsive policies and accommodations for women prisoners.
- Supporting community reintegration of released prisoners.
- Leveraging technology for better prison management and communication systems.
WPI Inflation rate
The WPI inflation has fallen into negative for the first time since July 2020.
Why is it in the news?
- Ministry of Commerce and Industry data shows a significant drop in inflation rate based on the Wholesale Price Index (WPI) in April, reaching a near three-year low of (-) 0.92%.
- This is the first time in 33 months that the inflation rate has entered negative territory.
- The decline in WPI inflation was mainly caused by lower prices of basic metals, food products, mineral oils, textiles, and non-food articles.
- Factors contributing to the decrease in inflation include a high base effect and a moderation in global commodity prices, leading to reduced costs of food, fuel, and other inputs.
What is a Wholesale Price Index (WPI)?
- The Wholesale Price Index (WPI) measures the prices of goods at the wholesale stage, which are sold in bulk and traded between organizations rather than consumers.
- It consists of 697 items, including Primary Articles (117), fuel and power (16), and Manufactured Products (564).
- The WPI’s year-on-year percentage increase indicates the inflation rate for that year.
- The current base year for calculating WPI is 2011-12.
- WPI is an important measure of inflation in India.
What is a base year?
- The base year is the reference year used to calculate inflation rates based on indices such as WPI and CPI.
- In the base year, the indices are set to 100.
- For example, if a basket of goods costs Rs 2 lakh in the base year, the index value is set at 100.
- If the price of the basket increases to Rs 2.2 lakh in the next year, the index will change to 110, indicating a 10% inflation rate.
What is a base effect?
- The base effect refers to the impact that the choice of a reference point or basis can have on the comparison of data points.
- It involves comparing data values or ratios between two points in a time-series or other types of data.
- In the context of inflation, the base effect relates to the comparison between the current period and the corresponding period in the previous year.
Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF)
India chose to join the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF) but declined the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).
Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF)
- IPEF is an economic grouping led by the United States that represents 40% of global GDP.
- Its goals are to promote resilience, economic growth, competitiveness, and fairness among member countries.
- Some analysts see it as a response to China’s growing influence in the region.
- The aim is to counter China’s influence and fill the gap left by not being a part of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).
Partner Countries and Expansion
- Partner countries of IPEF include Australia, Brunei, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and the United States.
- Fiji recently joined the initiative, expanding membership to include Pacific Island states.
Pillars of IPEF
- IPEF is built on four pillars: trade, supply chains, clean economy, and fair economy.
- India has joined the other three pillars but not trade.
Significance of IPEF for India
- IPEF holds strategic importance for India.
- It will strengthen India’s economic engagement in the region.
- Joining IPEF helps offset the impact of India’s withdrawal from RCEP since all IPEF members, except India and the US, are part of RCEP.
Building Resilient Supply Chains
- One of IPEF’s objectives is to develop resilient supply chains.
- India can consider IPEF members as alternative sources for raw materials.
This could reduce India’s dependence on China for these inputs.
Burachapori Wildlife Sanctuary
Assam Chief Minister’s office recently shared photographs of the successful eviction drive at Burachapori Wildlife Sanctuary.
About Burachapori Wildlife Sanctuary:
- Burachapori Wildlife Sanctuary is situated on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River in the Sonitpur district of Assam, India.
- It is a part of the Laokhowa Wildlife Sanctuary and is considered a single ecological and geographical entity, despite having different names.
- The area was initially declared a Reserved Forest in 1974 and later designated as a wildlife sanctuary in 1995.
- The sanctuary comprises a diverse mix of wet alluvial grasslands, riparian forests, and semi-evergreen forests, along with wetlands and river systems.
- A notable feature is the presence of freshwater mangrove trees, which are unique to this area.
- Various species of trees and medicinal plants, such as simul, korai, ajar, and hijal, can be found in the sanctuary.
- Burachapori Wildlife Sanctuary is renowned for its conservation of the Bengal Florican, a critically endangered bird species, and the One-horned Rhinoceros, which was once on the brink of extinction.
Other significant wildlife species include otters, civet cats, leopard cats, Asiatic buffaloes, wild boars, and barking deer.