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Here are the topics covered for 14 September 2023: Special Session, Global Stocktake Report, Safe Operating Space for Humanity, Coffee Production, Biofuels, e-Courts, Cloning Technique.
Table of Content
- Special Session
- Global Stocktake Report
- Safe Operating Space for Humanity
- Coffee Production
Facts for Prelims
- Cloning Technique
- The government of India has released the agenda of the Special Session of Parliament which is scheduled to be held from September 18 to 22.
- The government under the Parliamentary bulletin revealed that on the first day of the session, the two Houses will hold a discussion on Parliament’s 75-year journey, starting from the Constituent Assembly that first met on December 9, 1946.
- The agenda indicates that the government could use the special session to finally shift to the new Parliament building.
- Though it was inaugurated on May 28, the new building was not used for the Monsoon Session of Parliament.
- Three Bills will be taken up in this special session: the Post Office Bill, 2023 to “consolidate and amend the law relating to Post Office in India”; the Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners (Appointment, Conditions of Service and Term of Office) Bill, to “regulate the appointment, conditions of service and term of office of the Chief Election Commissioner and Other Election Commissioners”; and The Repealing and Amending Bill, 2023 to “repeal certain enactments and to amend an enactment”.
Special Session of Parliament
- The Special Session of the Indian Parliament refers to a unique and extraordinary gathering of Members of Parliament (MPs) and Members of the Rajya Sabha (the two houses of the Indian Parliament) outside of the regularly scheduled sessions.
- These sessions are convened by the President of India on the advice of the Prime Minister or the Cabinet.
|Constitutional Basis||Article 85 of the Indian Constitution grants the President the authority to convene Special Sessions.|
|Emergency Provisions||Special Sessions are often called during national emergencies, such as war (Article 352) or when there’s a breakdown of constitutional machinery in a state (Article 356).|
|Ambedkar’s Perspective||Dr. B.R. Ambedkar emphasized the importance of parliamentary sessions, including Special Sessions, for democratic processes.|
|Frequency||Special Sessions are irregular and called as needed in response to specific national matters or crises.|
|Calendar||They do not follow a fixed parliamentary calendar and are convened as required.|
|Agenda||Special Sessions discuss specific bills, policies, or urgent issues outlined in the President’s address at the session’s start.|
|Duration||The duration varies based on the nature and urgency of the matters; some are short, while others can last several days or weeks.|
Global Stocktake Report
- The United Nations climate secretariat released a ‘synthesis report‘ ahead of the G-20 summit, summarizing the progress of countries in achieving the goals of the 2015 Paris Agreement.
What is the Global Stocktake report?
- The ‘synthesis report’ is part of the ‘global stocktake’ process, which occurs every five years, and plays a crucial role in influencing discussions at the UN Climate Conference of Parties (COP).
- It encourages countries to raise their climate ambitions and revise their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) ahead of the next round of submissions in 2025.
Key Findings of the Report
- 17 key findings indicate a shortfall in achieving Paris Agreement goals.
- Emphasizes a closing window for action while offering potential for alignment with targets.
- A follow-up to the 2022 UN synthesis report, which found NDCs from 166 countries insufficient for Paris Agreement objectives.
- The 2022 United Nations Emissions Gap Report underscored the need for substantial CO2 reductions but noted that current pledges would only cover a fraction, creating a significant emissions gap.
- Urgent need for increased ambition to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.
- Targets include a 43% reduction by 2030 and 60% by 2035, with net-zero CO2 emissions globally by 2050.
- Scaling up renewable energy is essential, while unabated fossil fuels should be phased out.
- Halting deforestation, reversing land degradation, and promoting emission-reducing agricultural practices are crucial.
- Adaptation efforts are fragmented and need transparent reporting.
- Addressing loss and damage from climate change impacts requires comprehensive policies and increased support.
- Access to climate finance in developing countries must be enhanced.
- Global financial flows need to align with low-emission and climate-resilient development pathways.
Key Takeaways from the G20 Leaders Declaration:
- Acknowledgment of the significant financial requirements for transitioning to a renewable energy economy.
- Emphasis on the need for USD 5.8-5.9 trillion for developing countries in the pre-2030 period.
- Recognition of the requirement for USD 4 trillion per year for clean energy technologies by 2030 to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050.
About the Global Stocktake
- Conducted every five years to assess global climate response.
- First-ever Stocktake concludes at COP28 in December 2023.
- Evaluates progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, building climate resilience, and securing climate finance.
- Draws from diverse sources, including consultations with various stakeholders.
- Key findings emphasize the urgency of stronger climate action to avoid global temperature rise beyond 1.5 degrees Celsius.
Safe Operating Space for Humanity
- A new study by Science Advances has revealed that the Earth is exceeding its ‘safe operating space for humanity’.
Highlights of the Study
- This study is based on few measurements e., six of nine key measures of its health, and two of the remaining three are headed in the wrong direction.
- Earth’s climate, biodiversity, land, freshwater, and nutrient pollution are in an alarming state.
- The planet’s condition concerning “novel” chemicals, including microplastics and nuclear waste, is also a cause for concern.
- The acidity of the oceans, the health of the air, and the ozone layer are currently within safe boundaries.
- However, both ocean and air pollution are on the rise, indicating negative trends.
- In 2009, Rockstrom and a team of researchers established nine distinct boundary areas. These boundary areas were utilized to assess the overall health of the Earth using scientific measurements.
- Simulations demonstrated the significant potential of combating climate change through land cleanup and forest preservation.
- Restoring forests to late 20th-century levels can create valuable natural carbon sinks to store carbon dioxide and mitigate its impact on climate change.
- Biodiversity is facing serious challenges and receives less attention compared to other environmental issues like climate change.
- The improvement in the ozone layer indicates that when global recognition and action are taken, problems can be addressed, and there are known solutions to improve other environmental issues.
- The Coffee Board of India has given a statement that India’s coffee production witnessed a 20% drop in India’s coffee production.
Reason for Drop
- The expected blossom showers were delayed in Karnataka, resulting in only 50% of the anticipated rainfall.
- This delay has already caused a 20-25% decrease in yield.
- Additional rain at this point could potentially help recover 70-75% of the yield.
- Indian coffee has seen favorable prices recently due to supply disruptions from Brazil, the world’s largest coffee producer.
- Current prices are covering the cost of production, providing a positive outlook for coffee growers.
- Additionally, the consumption of specialty coffee in India has been increasing by nearly 10% annually, outpacing the 5% growth of regular coffee consumption.
- This trend has motivated growers to focus on planting specialty coffee varieties.
About Coffee Board of India
- The Coffee Board is a statutory organization established by the Coffee Act, of 1942.
- It operates under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India.
- The board consists of 33 members, including the Chairperson, with 32 members representing various interests appointed as per the Coffee Act and Rules.
- The board’s key focus areas include research, extension services, development, market intelligence, promotion (both internal and external), and welfare measures in the coffee sector.
- The Central Coffee Research Institute is located in Balehonnur, Karnataka, with a sub-station in Chettalli, Karnataka.
- Regional Coffee Research Stations are situated in Chundale (Kerala), Thandigudi (Tamil Nadu), Narasipatnam (Andhra Pradesh), and Diphu (Assam).
- Extension units are spread across coffee-growing regions in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and the North Eastern Region.
- PM Modi launches Global Biofuels Alliance at G20 Summit.
About Global Biofuels Alliance
- Founding members: India, Brazil, and the US, contribute to 85% of global ethanol production and 81% of consumption.
- Member countries aim to enhance cooperation voluntarily by promoting the use of sustainable biofuels.
- This includes strengthening collaboration among producers, consumers, and interested nations, fostering biofuels markets, and supporting the development of sector-specific standards.
- The biofuel alliance is being established on par with the International Solar Alliance, with a primary focus on expediting the adoption of biofuels, innovating new biofuel technologies, establishing internationally recognized standards, sharing global best practices, and encouraging industry engagement.
- The establishment of the Global Biofuels Alliance represents a significant milestone in our pursuit of sustainability and clean energy.
- The G20 Leaders’ Declaration acknowledges the significance of sustainable biofuels in their zero and low-emission development strategies and takes note of the formation of the Global Biofuels Alliance.
FACTS FOR PRELIMS
- The Union Government has approved the third phase of the e-Courts project.
- The e-Courts project, initiated in 2007 as part of the National e-Governance Plan, focuses on the ICT development of the Indian Judiciary.
- The project is implemented in collaboration with the e-Committee Supreme Court of India and the Department of Justice.
- Phase I of the project was carried out from 2011 to 2015.
- Phase II, which began in 2015, involves the computerization of various District and subordinate courts.
- Cloning is a technique scientists use to make exact genetic copies of living things. Genes, cells, tissues, and even whole animals can all be cloned.
- Stem Cell Production: Cloning creates embryos for pluripotent stem cells used in regenerative medicine.
- Genetic Disease Research: It aids the study of diseases in cloned animals with specific gene mutations.
- Livestock Improvement: Cloning replicates animals with desired traits for better genetics.
- Conservation: Cloning may help conserve endangered or extinct species.
- Organ Transplantation: Cloning offers immune-compatible organs for transplants.
- Aging Research: Cloning aids in understanding the aging process.