Daily News Analysis 12th Dec. 2023 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for  12th December 2023:

GS-2: J&K Special Status

GS-3: Agni-1, LeadIT, Diel Vertical Migration (DVM)

Facts for Prelims: GreenVoyage2050 Project , PM Vishwakarma Scheme

J&K Special Status


A Supreme Court Constitution Bench unanimously upheld the President\’s power to revoke Jammu and Kashmir\’s special status under Article 370. This led to the reorganization of the state into two Union Territories, removing its privileges.


Key Takeaways

The five-judge Bench, led by the Chief Justice of India, affirmed that the President possesses the unilateral authority to issue a notification terminating Article 370.

The court emphasized that the President can exercise this power if there are \”special circumstances\” demanding a unique solution.

The Chief Justice reasoned that the court does not have the jurisdiction to review or challenge the President\’s decision regarding the existence of special circumstances leading to the arrangement under Article 370.

The court acknowledged that the President\’s decision in 2019, which led to the abrogation of Article 370, was the outcome of a \”gradual and collaborative exercise\” spanning 70 years.

Over the past seven decades, there has been a continuous and collaborative effort between the Central government and the State to integrate Jammu and Kashmir with the Union.

The culmination of this exercise was the President\’s decision in 2019, reflecting the long-term goal of integrating Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of the Union.


What is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution: 

Article 370 holds a unique position as the first article in Part XXI of the Constitution, titled \’Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions.\’

Here are the key points regarding Article 370:

Article 370 is situated in the segment of the Constitution that deals with temporary, transitional, and special provisions.

It provides an exemption to Jammu and Kashmir from the application of most provisions of the Indian Constitution, with the exception of Article 1 and Article 370 itself.

J&K is allowed to formulate its own Constitution under Article 370.

Limitation on Legislative Powers: Parliament\’s legislative powers are restricted concerning J&K, and even for extending central laws related to subjects in the Instrument of Accession (IoA), only \”consultation\” with the state government is required.

The IoA was signed in 1947 by Raja Hari Singh of J&K and Governor General Lord Mountbatten, granting Parliament authority to legislate on Defence, External Affairs, and Communications for J&K.

For matters beyond Defence, External Affairs, and Communications, the \”concurrence\” of the state government is mandatory.

Described as a Tunnel: Article 370 has been metaphorically described as a tunnel through which the Indian Constitution was applied to J&K.

Through a 1954 order, nearly the entire Indian Constitution, including most Constitutional amendments, was extended to J&K.

Repealing the Special Status of Jammu and Kashmir:

Article 370(3) allows for the removal of Jammu and Kashmir\’s special status through a Presidential Order. This order, however, requires the prior agreement of J&K\’s Constituent Assembly.

Since the Constituent Assembly was dissolved on January 26, 1957, one perspective argues that the special status cannot be revoked. Conversely, another viewpoint suggests that it can be achieved with the concurrence of the State Assembly.

In 2019, the President issued the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order 2019, which eliminated J&K\’s special status and applied all provisions of the Indian Constitution to the region

The J&K (Reorganisation) Act 2019 further divided J&K into two Union Territories – J&K with a Legislative Assembly and Ladakh without one.



This landmark ruling underscores the evolving nature of constitutional interpretations, the delicate balance between federal and regional powers, and the historical context shaping legal decisions.




In a significant development, India recently conducted a successful training launch of the Short-Range Ballistic Missile \’Agni-1\’ from APJ Abdul Kalam Island, Odisha. 

This achievement carried out under the Strategic Forces Command, marks a crucial step in India\’s indigenization of defense technology and highlights advancements in its missile capabilities.


About Agni-1:

The Agni-1 missile, a Short-Range Ballistic Missile (SRBM), is a cornerstone of India\’s Agni series. Positioned as a strategic weapon, it is designed to carry a nuclear payload and serve as a deterrent against potential adversaries. 

As the inaugural variant in the Agni series under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP), Agni-1 is known for its rapid response time.


Technical Specifications:

Agni-1 operates as a single-stage, solid-fueled missile with a range spanning approximately 700 to 1200 kilometers. 

Its payload capacity of 1,000 kg makes it a short-range ballistic missile capable of carrying both conventional and nuclear warheads. 

The solid-fuel propulsion system enhances operational flexibility and reduces launch preparation time.


Development and Testing:

Developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Agni-1 has undergone rigorous testing to validate its performance and reliability. 

The missile\’s maiden test took place at the Interim Test Range in Chandipur in 1989, and it was officially accepted into service by the Indian Army in 2007.


Other Agni Class Missiles:

The Agni series comprises various ballistic missiles tailored for specific ranges and purposes:

Agni II: Exceeds a range of 2000 km.

Agni III: Boasts a range of more than 2,500 km.

Agni IV: With a range exceeding 3,500 km, it can be launched from a road-mobile launcher.

Agni-V: The longest-ranged Agni missile, categorized as an Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) with a range surpassing 5,000 km.

Agni Prime: A two-stage canisterized missile, successfully flight-tested in June 2023, capable of delivering multiple warheads at separate locations within a distance of 1,000 – 2,000 km.


ICBMs (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles):

ICBMs, characterized by exceptionally long ranges exceeding 5,500 kilometers, play a pivotal role in a country\’s nuclear triad. 

This triad includes land-based missiles, submarine-launched missiles (SLBMs), and strategic bombers. ICBMs, following a ballistic trajectory, are launched into space before re-entering Earth\’s atmosphere to strike their targets.



The successful training launch of Agni-1 underscores India\’s commitment to advancing indigenous defense capabilities. 

The broader Agni series represents a formidable array of missiles catering to varying strategic needs. 

As India continues to enhance its missile technologies, this accomplishment reaffirms the nation\’s position in the global landscape of defense and technology advancements.




The second phase of the Leadership Group for Industry Transition (LeadIT) was unveiled at the LeadIT Summit 2023 during the Conference of Parties (COP 28) in the United Arab Emirates. 

Hosted by India and Sweden, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change announced the three pillars of LeadIT 2.0, emphasizing a collaborative approach to accelerate the transition of energy-intensive sectors toward low-carbon pathways.


About Leadership Group for Industry Transition (LeadIT):

LeadIT is a global initiative targeting challenging sectors such as steel, cement, chemicals, aviation, and shipping, with the goal of expediting their transition to low-carbon pathways.

It brings together countries and companies committed to action in alignment with the objectives of the Paris Agreement.

Launched by the governments of Sweden and India at the United Nations Climate Action Summit in 2019.

Supported by the World Economic Forum, the initiative is guided by the LeadIT Secretariat responsible for managing the group\’s work.

Membership: Comprising 38 members, including both countries and companies, with active participation from India.

The overarching objective is for energy-intensive industries to progress on low-carbon pathways and achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.


Key Highlights of the Second Phase of LeadIT (2.0):


Facilitate the creation of policies and regulations supporting an inclusive industry transition through public-private partnerships.

Mobilize resources, support knowledge-sharing, and accelerate pathways to achieve net-zero industry emissions by 2050.


LeadIT Pillars:

Global Forum for a Just and Equitable Industry Transition:

Objective: Ensure continuous dialogue and engagement between governments and industry.

Focus Areas: Sustain LeadIT\’s engagement with multilateral groups, facilitate knowledge-sharing, and monitor the pace of the transition.

Technology Transfer and Co-development: 

Facilitate business-to-business technology transfer and build national institutional capacity for innovation.

Industry Transition Partnerships:

Objective: Assist members in creating industry transition partnerships to support emerging markets and developing economies in their pursuit of green industrial transitions.

Activities: Map, coordinate, and strengthen technical and financial international assistance to enhance effectiveness.

Ultimate Goal: Establish enabling conditions for a pipeline of bankable low-carbon industrial projects.



The second phase of LeadIT represents a significant stride towards fostering global cooperation in addressing the challenges posed by energy-intensive industries to the environment. 

By outlining pillars focused on dialogue, technology transfer, and partnerships, LeadIT 2.0 demonstrates a commitment to inclusive and sustainable industry transitions. 

This collaborative approach aligns with the broader global efforts to combat climate change and achieve the ambitious targets set by international climate agreements.


Diel Vertical Migration (DVM)


The phenomenon of Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) among deep-sea creatures, particularly zooplankton, has garnered attention due to its impact on Earth\’s Carbon Cycle. 

This synchronized movement, involving ascension towards the surface at night and descent during the day, showcases nature\’s wonders and plays a crucial role in carbon sequestration.


About Diel Vertical Migration (DVM):

DVM is a coordinated movement observed in marine organisms, notably deep-sea creatures like zooplankton, involving vertical migration in the water column. 

This migration pattern serves as a survival tactic, enabling organisms to find food and evade predators.

During dusk, organisms from the mesopelagic layer ascend from deeper levels to the safety of the epipelagic zone, utilizing darkness to feed on microscopic phytoplankton while avoiding diurnal predators.

This synchronized migration stands as the planet\’s largest biomass migration, occurring daily across all oceans.


Role of DVM in Carbon Sequestration:

Carbon Extraction: Organisms in the mesopelagic layer actively extract significant carbon from upper ocean layers while feeding on surface plankton.

Food Chain Contribution: Migratory animals within the twilight zone contribute to the food chain, passing on consumed carbon to their predators.

Carbon Sink: Carbon-rich waste produced by these organisms sinks to the ocean floor, serving as a crucial carbon sink. This process traps carbon dioxide, contributing to the regulation of atmospheric carbon concentrations.

Carbon Sequestration:

Carbon sequestration refers to the long-term storage of carbon in various environmental reservoirs, including plants, soils, geologic formations, and the ocean.


Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration: Involves the absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere by trees and plants through photosynthesis, storing carbon in soils and biomass.

Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Involves storing CO2 in oil reservoirs, gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, saline formations, and shale formations with high organic content.

Ocean Carbon Sequestration: Involves ocean processes that absorb, release, and store large amounts of CO2, such as enhancing productivity through iron fertilization and injecting CO2 into the deep ocean.



The discovery of the intricate relationship between Diel Vertical Migration and carbon sequestration underscores the interconnectedness of marine ecosystems with the global carbon cycle. 

As marine organisms actively contribute to carbon extraction and sinking, recognizing these natural processes becomes crucial for understanding and mitigating the impacts of climate change. 

The study of DVM not only reveals the marvels of nature but also highlights its role in sustaining the delicate balance of Earth\’s carbon dynamics.

Facts for Prelims: 

GreenVoyage2050 Project 


India has been designated as the lead country for the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Green Voyage2050 Project, marking a significant step in addressing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from ships.

Launched in 2019 as a collaborative effort between the Government of Norway and IMO, the GreenVoyage2050 Project aims to steer the shipping industry towards a more environmentally sustainable future. 

The project aligns with the Initial IMO Strategy, which outlines a clear vision to reduce total annual GHG emissions by at least 50% by 2050, relative to 2008 levels.

Operational in 12 countries, namely Azerbaijan, Belize, China, Cook Islands, Ecuador, Georgia, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, and Sri Lanka, the GreenVoyage2050 Project categorizes participating nations into \”New Pilot Countries\” and \”Pioneer Pilot Countries.\” 

This initiative reflects a concerted global effort to drive transformative change and address climate concerns within the maritime sector.


PM Vishwakarma Scheme


The PM Vishwakarma Scheme aims to uplift traditional artisans and craftspeople involved in occupations like blacksmithing, goldsmithing, pottery, carpentry, and sculpting. 

The scheme, implemented as a Central Sector Scheme fully funded by the Government of India, is under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME). Jointly implemented by MoMSME, the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, and the Department of Financial Services, Ministry of Finance, the scheme focuses on preserving cultural heritage and integrating artisans into the formal economy and global value chains.

Features of the scheme include the recognition and support of artisans through a PM Vishwakarma certificate and identity card

Enrolled artisans are eligible for collateral-free credit support of up to Rs 1 lakh (first tranche) and Rs 2 lakh (second tranche) at a concessional interest rate of 5%. 

The scheme, with a budget of Rs 13,000 crore for five financial years from 2023-2024 to 2027-2028, also provides a stipend of Rs 500 per day for skill training and a grant of Rs 15,000 to purchase modern tools.

The scope of the scheme covers 18 traditional trades in both rural and urban areas, including carpenters, boat-makers, blacksmiths, potters, sculptors, cobblers, tailors, and more. 

Registration for the Vishwakarma Yojana can be done at common service centers in villages, and both central and state governments are involved in the implementation.

The objectives of the scheme include seamlessly integrating artisans into domestic and global value chains, enhancing their market access and opportunities, preserving and promoting India\’s rich cultural heritage of traditional crafts, and assisting artisans in transitioning to the formal economy.

The significance of the Vishwakarma Scheme lies in recognizing and supporting the critical role played by Vishwakarmas (Traditional Artisans) in society, irrespective of technological advancements. The scheme aims to ensure their integration into the global supply chain.


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