Daily News Analysis 11th Dec. 2023 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for  11th December 2023:

GS-3: Regulating AI, Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), ChatGPT – Human Therapists, Quantum Realm

Facts for prelims:  Technology  Development Fund (TDF), Pinna Nobilis


Regulating AI


European Union negotiators have achieved a breakthrough agreement, paving the way for the world\’s first comprehensive regulations on artificial intelligence (AI).


Key Provisions

  • Addresses high-impact AI models and regulations for high-risk systems.
  • EU-level enforcement and extended prohibitions.
  • Allows conditional use of remote biometric ID, subject to safeguards.
  • Mandates fundamental rights impact assessment for high-risk AI systems.
  • Thierry Breton sees the AI Act as historic, positioning the EU as a global AI leader.
  • European Parliament President Metsola views it as a pivotal moment, setting global standards.
  • Over 150 AI scholars seek exemptions for research projects.
  • Professor Honkela voices concerns about potential impacts on European AI research and innovation.


India’s Approach towards Regulating AI:


  • India possesses the fundamental elements to establish a robust AI research and development ecosystem, including a highly educated talent pool, renowned educational institutions, and dominant IT companies globally. 
  • Despite these advantages, India perceives a significant lag in generating world-class research and innovation, particularly in AI, compared to countries like China, which aspires to lead in AI by 2030.
  • To harness the potential of AI, India should consider reports such as NITI Aayog\’s paper, outlining key areas for AI application in healthcare, agriculture, education, smart cities, infrastructure, and smart mobility. 
  • To scale AI adoption, India needs to leverage its strengths and address existing gaps with government and private sector support, similar to the strategies employed by the USA and China.
  • Acknowledging that AI\’s exponential growth depends on data, computing, and algorithms, India must invest substantially in computing technologies. 
  • NITI Aayog\’s recommendations emphasize turbocharging core and applied research and proposing frameworks for collaborative, market-oriented solutions to AI\’s major research challenges.


India should follow a two-step process for efficient AI system operation: 


  • collecting country-specific data for the intended application and configuring AI systems accordingly. Challenges in data collection and skill development need attention, with a particular focus on recognizing the significance of \”Raw Data\” in AI.
  • The need for AI regulation is paramount, considering privacy concerns and potential threats to national security arising from facial recognition and data usage by AI systems. 
  • The Indian Government aims to regulate AI by formulating guidelines on technology development, algorithm writing, and data usage policies. This aligns with global efforts by countries like Canada, China, and the UK to control and ethically manage AI usage.



  • India should foster a \”Responsible AI Ecosystem\” characterized by ethical, secure, and unbiased AI development. Both the government and private industries must invest in AI technologies, and the government should prioritize AI skill development among graduates.


ChatGPT – Human Therapists


  • In September, an OpenAI representative faced criticism on X (formerly Twitter) for likening her interaction with ChatGPT to therapy, even though she acknowledged not having prior experience with therapy.
  • The representative faced backlash for implying ChatGPT could offer therapy, despite admitting her lack of qualifications. Critics accused her of falling prey to the ELIZA effect.


What is the ELIZA effect?

  • Definition: The ELIZA effect is when people attribute human-like emotions or capabilities to computer programs based on their responsive behaviour.
  • Origin: Named after a 1960s program developed by MIT professor Joseph Weizenbaum, which responded to users with basic sentences echoing their input.
  • Example: Users interacting with ChatGPT may perceive the conversation as meaningful and akin to human interaction, rather than recognizing it as output from a large language model.
  • Characteristics: This phenomenon arises when individuals believe that computer programs, like ChatGPT, possess qualities akin to human conversations, overlooking the fact that they are generated by a machine.


Use of Digital Era

  • Many people globally turn to the internet for health information privately, seeking anonymity to avoid stigmas associated with being labelled as unhealthy or sick.
  • Platforms like WebMD and ChatGPT provide a level of anonymity desired by patients, according to historian Jim Downs, author of \”Maladies of Empire.\”
  • AI chatbots, including ChatGPT, may not effectively bridge the doctor-patient divide.
  • Researchers claim that AI chatbots tend to favour privileged castes and economic classes in India, potentially excluding marginalized communities.
  • In healthcare, ChatGPT has been shown to generate false results, including claims of physiological differences in Black people\’s bodies compared to other races, as reported in the Digital Medicine journal.
  • Fields like epidemiology and psychology emerged from historical contexts, such as studying diseases in subjugated populations during colonialism.
  • Mr Downs highlights the birth of psychology based on unscientific ideas of white supremacy over colonized populations.
  • Mr. Downs emphasizes the importance of recognizing multiple cultures and complex identities when understanding health conditions.
  • Caution is advised in relying on AI-generated understandings of health, as they may perpetuate Eurocentric perspectives that fail to recognize cultural specificity.


Need of Human Therapists

  • Sanskriti values the trial-and-error process of finding the right human therapist for deeper insights and understanding.
  • Human therapists can identify triggers and link anecdotes to childhood experiences, providing a more layered and insightful conversation.
  • ChatGPT played a crucial role in a medical emergency, offering immediate assistance by answering healthcare doubts and guiding decisions.
  • Sanskriti acknowledges that while ChatGPT lacks depth, it can ease anxiety at the moment and provide practical help in specific situations.
  • Sanskriti\’s experience highlights the complementary roles of human therapists and ChatGPT, each contributing uniquely based on the context and nature of the situation.


Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)


  • The RBI\’s Monetary Policy Committee unanimously maintained the repo rate at 6.5 percent.
  • A 5-1 vote focused on withdrawing accommodation measures.
  • RBI Governor Shaktikanta Das emphasized an \”actively disinflationary\” policy to align with the 4 percent inflation target, expressing readiness for further policy actions if necessary.


Overview of Indian Economy

  • Recent months witnessed a steady decline in inflation, dropping to 4.87 percent in October from 7.44 percent in July, primarily driven by lower food inflation.
  • Near-term inflation outlook is uncertain; potential uptick in food prices in November and December due to supply-demand balance and climate-related uncertainties over the rabi crop.
  • RBI projects a slow easing of inflation from 5.6 percent in Q3 to 5.2 percent in Q4, aiming for an average of around 4.3 percent in the second and third quarters of the next year.
  • Despite concerns over private consumption, the RBI remains optimistic about the economy\’s resilience, citing durable urban demand and expecting a gradual turnaround in rural demand.
  • Investment activity is supported by government spending, and the central bank raised its full-year GDP forecast to 7 percent from 6.5 percent.
  • The growth forecast implies a slowdown from 7.7 percent in the first half to 6.25 percent in the second half.
  • Optimistic projections for next year with growth at 6.7 percent in the first quarter and slightly declining to 6.4 percent in the third quarter.
  • The evolution of the growth-inflation trajectory will determine when the committee considers easing policy rates.

Conclusion : 

The recent decision by the Reserve Bank of India\’s (RBI) Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) to maintain the repo rate at 6.5 per cent reflects a cautious stance amid evolving economic conditions. The unanimous decision, with a notable 5-1 vote focusing on withdrawing accommodation measures, underscores the committee\’s commitment to addressing inflationary concerns.


Quantum Realm


  • In a recent article, the enigmatic world of quantum physics takes centre stage, highlighting its perplexing nature and the challenges posed by Heisenberg\’s uncertainty principle. 


Heisenberg\’s Uncertainty Principle:

  • Quantum phenomena, governed by Heisenberg\’s uncertainty principle, introduce counter-intuitive features.
  • The principle posits that precise information about a particle\’s position cannot be obtained until actively checked, in contrast to classical mechanics.


Key points to be noted: 

  • Physicists address quantum system limitations through non-integer small dimensions, known as fractal dimensions.
  • Dimensionality plays a crucial role in studying quantum properties, with different behaviours observed in one-dimensional and two-dimensional systems.
  • Fractal geometry, characterized by self-similarity, offers a unique lens to explore quantum systems in dimensions like 1.55 or 1.58.
  • Fractals, such as the Koch snowflake, are structures that evolve through repeated modifications, showcasing the ability to fill space as their dimension increases.
  • Fractals, observed in macroscopic scales (e.g., human fingerprints, tree stumps, river networks) and quantum realms, reveal irregular, complex patterns with self-similar features.
  • Examples include the fractal arrangement of magnetic domains in neodymium nickel oxide and the surface density pattern of electrons in graphene.
  • Fractal analysis finds applications in various fields, historically beginning with Brownian motion.
  • It contributes to data compression, antenna design, studying patterns in galaxies and planets, and providing insights into chromatography and ion exchange processes.
  • Fractals, deeply rooted in geometry, offer a fresh perspective on natural processes, unravelling complexity.
  • By observing self-similar structures, individuals can gain insights into quantum mysteries, encouraging a closer examination of the intricate world around us.



  • In conclusion, fractals, rooted in geometry, unravel new dimensions of understanding in various natural processes. 
  • As self-similar structures unfold complexity over time, the exploration of fractals provides a lens through which we can unravel quantum mysteries. 
  • By slowing down and examining these intricate patterns, we may gain valuable insights into the elusive nature of the quantum realm.


Facts for prelims: 

Technology  Development Fund (TDF)

The Union Raksha Rajya Mantri recently informed Lok Sabha about the successful development of 16 defence technologies under this scheme.

Objectives of the TDF Scheme:

  • The TDF scheme aims to provide grants in Aid to Indian industries, including MSMEs and startups, as well as academic and scientific institutions.
  • It focuses on developing Defence and dual-use technologies currently unavailable in the Indian defence industry.
  • Encourages private industries, especially MSMEs and startups, to engage in the Design and development of Military Technology with grant support.
  • Emphasizes Research, Design and development of Niche technologies, marking a pioneering effort in the country.
  • It aims to create collaboration among the Armed Forces, research organisations, academia, qualifying agencies, and private sector entities.
  • Funding will be provided through grants to the industry. Projects with a cost of up to INR 10 Cr will be considered for funding, covering a maximum of 90% of the total project cost.
  • Collaboration with academia or research institutions is allowed, with academia\’s involvement capped at 40% of the total project cost.
  • The maximum development period for projects under the TDF scheme is two years.


Successful Developments Under TDF:

  • The Union Raksha Rajya Mantri announced that 16 defence technologies have been successfully developed or realized through the TDF scheme.
  • The TDF scheme aligns with the broader \’Make in India\’ initiative, emphasizing indigenous development and production capabilities in the defence sector.
  • A key objective of the TDF scheme is to create a bridge between the Armed Forces, research organisations, academia, qualifying/certifying agencies, and private sector entities.
  • The TDF scheme supports futuristic technologies with a Proof of Concept, facilitating their transformation into prototypes.


Pinna Nobilis: A Remarkable Comeback Story

  • In a recent development reported by marine biologists, the noble pen shell, scientifically known as Pinna Nobilis, has staged a remarkable comeback, particularly in the waters off Croatia. This colossal clam faced the brink of extinction due to a lethal pathogen that spread across parts of the Mediterranean around 2016, leading to a drastic decline in its population.
  • Initially, scientists in Croatia were aware of only about 10 surviving specimens in their section of the Adriatic. 
  • However, a diver\’s discovery last year near the shore in the north of the Istria peninsula revealed a group of 20, challenging the belief that these clams were on the verge of extinction. 
  • Sandro Dujmovic of the Natura Histrica organization, responsible for managing Istria\’s protected areas, expressed disbelief, stating that the news seemed incredible.
  • This year, biologists successfully collected approximately 100 young Pinna nobilis specimens and transported them to an aquarium, indicating signs of ongoing reproduction. 
  • The shells of these clams can grow as large as 1.2 meters and play a crucial ecological role by filtering seawater, fostering the flourishing of other marine organisms.
  • The aquarium, situated in the Adriatic town of Pula, provides a controlled environment with specially filtered water, protecting the clams from potential parasites. 
  • While the exact reasons behind this significant resurgence remain unclear, ongoing research, funded by the Croatian government, aims to unravel the mystery behind the Pinna nobilis comeback. The scientists remain optimistic about understanding and sustaining the recovery of this endangered species.


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