Daily News Analysis 11 August 2023 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for 11 August 2023: Centre\’s Bill on Election Commission Appointments, Understanding India\’s Approach Towards Myanmar, Strengthening India\’s Economic Resilience Through Monetary Policy, Nurturing India\’s Cotton Sector, Indian Web Browser Development Challenge, Digital Connectivity Infrastructure Provider Authorization, Empowering Agroforestry and Natural Farming, China\’s \’Sponge Cities\’ and Their Flood Challenges, Indian Web Browser Development Challenge (IWBDC), Scientists Design 2D Composite Quantum Material, New Spaceport in Tamil Nadu for Small Satellite Launch Vehicles (SSLV), India-Vietnam Relations, Visa Issuance Suspensions Between France and Mali, SuSwagatam Portal, Athidhi Portal, Compulsorily Convertible Debentures (CCDs) Tax Notices to Investors, Renaming of Kerala to \”Keralam\”, UNESCO\’s Call for Smartphone Ban in Schools, Understanding Federal Funds Rate and Its Impact, Uttar Pradesh Defence Industrial Corridor (UPDIC) Transformative Initiative, Hawaii\’s Wildfires and Island Features, Pradhan Mantri PVTG Development Mission, Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs), Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana, World Lion Day, Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) Meeting, Amazon Rainforest.


Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

  1. Centre\’s Bill on Election Commission Appointments
  2. Understanding India\’s Approach Towards Myanmar


GS Paper 3:

  1. Strengthening India\’s Economic Resilience Through Monetary Policy
  2. Nurturing India\’s Cotton Sector
  3. Indian Web Browser Development Challenge
  4. Digital Connectivity Infrastructure Provider Authorization
  5. Empowering Agroforestry and Natural Farming
  6. China\’s \’Sponge Cities\’ and Their Flood Challenges
  7. Indian Web Browser Development Challenge (IWBDC)
  8. Scientists Design 2D Composite Quantum Material
  9. New Spaceport in Tamil Nadu for Small Satellite Launch Vehicles (SSLV)


Prelims Related Facts

  1. India-Vietnam Relations
  2. Visa Issuance Suspensions Between France and Mali
  3. SuSwagatam Portal
  4. Athidhi Portal
  5. Compulsorily Convertible Debentures (CCDs) Tax Notices to Investors
  6. Renaming of Kerala to \”Keralam\”
  7. UNESCO\’s Call for Smartphone Ban in Schools
  8. Understanding Federal Funds Rate and Its Impact
  9. Uttar Pradesh Defence Industrial Corridor (UPDIC) Transformative Initiative
  10. Hawaii\’s Wildfires and Island Features
  11. Pradhan Mantri PVTG Development Mission
  12. Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)
  13. Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana
  14. World Lion Day
  15. Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) Meeting
  16. Amazon Rainforest


GS Paper 2

Centre\’s Bill on Election Commission Appointments


Courtesy: TOI


In March of this year, the Supreme Court ruled on Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and Election Commissioner (EC) appointments, prompting a need for legislative action.

New Bill\’s Aim: The Centre introduced the \”Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners (Appointments, Conditions of Service, Term of Office) Bill\” in the Rajya Sabha to address the Supreme Court\’s ruling.


Major Features:

  1. Committee Composition: The bill proposes a committee consisting of the Prime Minister, Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha, and a nominated Cabinet Minister.
  2. Search Committee: A Search Committee led by the Cabinet Secretary will identify suitable candidates.
  3. Qualifications: CEC and ECs must possess integrity, high-ranking experience, and election management knowledge.
  4. Appointments Process: The committee selects CEC and ECs from the Search Committee\’s panel.
  5. Impeachment Process: A process similar to Supreme Court judge impeachment is introduced for EC removal.
  6. Protection: Aligns EC removal process with Supreme Court judges, safeguarding against arbitrary removal.
  7. Transparency: Introduces a Search Committee and eligible candidate panel for fairness.


Debate and Issues:

  1. Composition Concerns: Inclusion of the Prime Minister and nominated Cabinet Minister might affect impartiality.
  2. Judiciary Involvement: Replacing Chief Justice with Cabinet Minister reduces judiciary input.
  3. Search Committee Effectiveness: The efficiency of the Search Committee in unbiased selection is debated.
  4. Decision Beyond Shortlist: Allowing Selection Committee to pick candidates beyond the panel raises concerns.
  5. Rank Downgrading: Downgrading Election Commissioners\’ rank may impact their status.



Balanced consultation involving stakeholders can reinforce the Election Commission\’s integrity.


Understanding India\’s Approach Towards Myanmar: Simplified


  1. Article talks about how India is dealing with Myanmar\’s situation.
  2. Myanmar is facing a crisis, but it\’s not becoming democratic yet.


Myanmar\’s Complicated Situation

  1. Myanmar\’s President extended the \’emergency\’ by 6 months, ignoring the constitution.
  2. Military released some prisoners but still no clear move towards democracy.


Emergency and Elections

  1. Extended emergency delays military\’s proposed elections.
  2. Military leader justifies it, but violence is increasing, hurting people.
  3. Military controls only a part of Myanmar, elections under these conditions won\’t be fair.


Role of Aung San Suu Kyi

  1. Military reduced Suu Kyi\’s sentence and moved her from prison.
  2. She\’s important for change in Myanmar, even if controversial.
  3. Her return might affect resistance and relations with Rohingyas.


Symbolic Gestures and India

  1. Myanmar\’s military made symbolic moves to show progress.
  2. India helped Myanmar in the beginning but changed stance due to issues.
  3. India supports ASEAN\’s \’Five-Point Consensus\’ and wants stable border.


India\’s Balancing Act

  1. India talks about democracy but also thinks about security and China.
  2. Building railways to counter China\’s influence in Myanmar.
  3. India gave arms to Myanmar\’s military, despite wanting democracy.


Complex Situation and India\’s Strategy

  1. Myanmar\’s situation is tough, delaying democracy and causing suffering.
  2. Aung San Suu Kyi\’s role matters for the resistance and military.
  3. India\’s policy is challenging, balancing democracy and security.
  4. India\’s aid shifted due to concerns, creating a paradox.


Possible Way Forward

  1. India can use Suu Kyi\’s reduced sentence to help democracy.
  2. It should address refugee concerns and be compassionate.



  1. India faces a tough challenge balancing democracy and security.
  2. It needs to find ways to help Myanmar while also protecting its interests.


GS Paper 3

Strengthening India\’s Economic Resilience Through Monetary Policy


Monetary Policy Basics

  1. Monetary policy involves central bank strategies to control economy.
  2. Tools like interest rates and credit policies used.
  3. Two types: expansionary (boost growth) and contractionary (control prices).


Parameter Repo Rate Reverse Repo Rate Bank Rate CRR SLR
Definition Interest rate at which the central bank lends money to commercial banks. Interest rate at which the central bank borrows money from commercial banks. Interest rate at which the central bank lends to financial institutions. Portion of deposits banks must keep with the central bank in cash. Portion of deposits banks must maintain in liquid assets like government securities.
Purpose Regulates money supply, inflation, and economic growth. Controls liquidity in the banking system and signals monetary policy stance. Influences overall borrowing and lending rates in the economy. Manages liquidity and credit availability. Ensures liquidity and safety of banks\’ assets.
Impact on Economy ↑ Repo rate → Costlier borrowing → Discourages borrowing and spending → Controls inflation. ↑ Reverse repo rate → More attractive to lend to central bank → Reduces money supply → Controls inflation. ↑ Bank rate → Higher cost of funds → Discourages borrowing → Controls inflation. ↑ CRR → Decreased lendable funds → Reduces money supply → Controls inflation. ↑ SLR → Reduced lendable funds → Controls excess liquidity → Stabilizes financial system.
Monetary Policy Signal Tightening of monetary policy. Easing of monetary policy. Easing or tightening of monetary policy. Used as a tool of monetary policy. Used as a tool of monetary policy.
Collateral Commercial banks provide government securities as collateral. Central bank provides government securities as collateral. Commercial banks provide government securities as collateral. No collateral required. Commercial banks invest in approved securities.
Relation to Policy Rate Generally higher than the reverse repo rate. Generally lower than the repo rate. Generally higher than the repo and reverse repo rates. Policy rate influenced by repo and reverse repo rates. Policy rate influenced by repo and reverse repo rates.


Global Economic Uncertainty

  1. Complex global situation with changing interest rates and tensions.
  2. RBI (India\’s central bank) maintains rates for stability.
  3. Challenges from US downgrade, China\’s issues, and more.


RBI\’s Key Decisions

  1. RBI keeps policy rates unchanged for stability.
  2. Inflation projection revised due to vegetable prices, but expected to decrease.
  3. Positive growth outlook with strong banking system.


Digital Initiatives and Financial Inclusivity

  1. RBI introduces new digital payment methods for convenience and safety.
  2. Higher limits for small-value payments to promote financial inclusion.


Conclusion: Building a Strong Economy

  1. Recent monetary policy maintains stability and growth.
  2. Combines traditional and innovative measures for a balanced economy.


Nurturing India\’s Cotton Sector


Courtesy: Economic Survey


Boosting Cotton Sector Development

  1. India\’s efforts to empower cotton farmers, promote sector.
  2. Cotton Development Programme under National Food Security Mission (NFSM).
  3. MSP formula for cotton to support farmers\’ income.
  4. Cotton Corporation of India (CCI) safeguards farmers\’ interests.


Initiatives to Strengthen Cotton Industry

  1. Kasturi Cotton brand for quality, traceability, and branding.
  2. Large-Scale Demonstrations Project for best practices.
  3. Textile Advisory Group (TAG) for coordination in cotton value chain.
  4. Cott-Ally Mobile App for farmer knowledge and support.


Importance of Cotton

  1. Kharif crop, drought-resistant, occupies 2.1% of arable land.
  2. Key role in textile industry, essential for economic growth.
  3. Top cotton producing states: Gujarat, Maharashtra, Telangana, Rajasthan.
  4. Efforts to enhance productivity, quality, and sustainability.


Indian Web Browser Development Challenge


Courtesy: Fonearena


Empowering Indigenous Web Browsing

  1. Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) launches Indian Web Browser Development Challenge (IWBDC).
  2. Developers invited to create Indigenous Indian Web Browser.
  3. Browser ideas must trust Controller of Certifying Authorities (CCA).


Significance of Web Browsers

  1. Interface for exploring World Wide Web.
  2. Key for accessing information, services, and documents.
  3. Examples: Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox.


Key Features of IWBDC

  1. Own trust store with CCA India root certificate.
  2. Enhanced security, data privacy protection features.
  3. MeitY, CCA, and C-DAC Bangalore collaboration.
  4. Focus on accessibility, user-friendliness, secure transactions.


Benefits of Indigenous Web Browsing

  1. Strengthen Aatmanirbhar Bharat initiative.
  2. Supports digital sovereignty and development of Indian Web Browser.
  3. Addresses critical component for internet users.


Digital Connectivity Infrastructure Provider Authorization


The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) recently released recommendations for introducing Digital Connectivity Infrastructure Provider Authorization under Unified License (UL).


Major Recommendations of TRAI

  1. Creation of DCIP Authorization: Introduce a new license category – Digital Connectivity Infrastructure Provider (DCIP) Authorization.
  2. Scope of Authorization: Covers ownership, establishment, maintenance, and operation of digital connectivity infrastructure components.
  3. Unified License Framework: DCIP falls under Unified License, encouraging specialized players in active and passive DCI creation.
  4. Self-Regulation and Compliance: Principal-agent relationship for security, QoS, and license obligations.
  5. Sharing of Infrastructure: DCIPs can share with UL licensees and ISPs, promoting collaboration and cost efficiency.
  6. Access to Eligible Entities: Lease/sale basis access to entities with valid licenses under Telegraph and Electricity Acts.


Significance of Digital Connectivity Infrastructure

  1. Facilitating Communication: Enables instant communication and information exchange globally.
  2. Driving Economic Growth: Catalyst for global marketplace access, e-commerce, and trade.
  3. Empowering Digital Services: Vital for telemedicine, e-governance, and education.
  4. Enhancing Innovation: Fosters collaboration, data sharing, and remote work.
  5. Supporting Industry Transformation: Automation, IoT, and data analytics in sectors like manufacturing and agriculture.
  6. Bridging Digital Divide: Provides underserved areas access to information and opportunities.
  7. Government Initiatives: Supports Digital India, Make in India, Smart Cities, and more.


Empowering Agroforestry and Natural Farming


The Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF) is now part of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), aligning with eco-friendly practices and natural farming promotion.


Key Features of Restructured Agroforestry Scheme Under RKVY

  1. Quality Planting Material (QPM): Emphasis on QPM availability, nodal agency for technical support and certification.
  2. AICRP Centers: Collaboration for innovation and sustainable practices.
  3. State Nodal Departments/Agencies: Ensures QPM production and availability.
  4. Distribution to Farmers/SHGs: QPM accessible to farmers and SHGs.
  5. Key Components and Activities: Nurseries, Tissue Culture Lab, Skill Development, Research & Development, and more.
  6. Quality Planting Material: Essential for agriculture, forestry, and market quality.


Government Initiatives for Promoting Natural Farming

  1. Bharatiya Prakritik Krishi Paddhati (BPKP): Chemical-free farming through integrated approach.
  2. Namami Gange Program: Promotes organic farming along Ganga River.
  3. Expansion Along Ganga Corridor: Chemical-free farming in Ganga-adjacent states.
  4. Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF): Encourages multi-purpose tree planting alongside crops.


China\’s \’Sponge Cities\’ and Their Flood Challenges


China\’s urban flooding prompted the sponge city initiative in 2015 to enhance urban flood control.

Sponge City Concept: \”Sponge cities\” integrate nature-based solutions for better water management and flood resilience.



  1. Rapid Urbanization: Urban expansion reduces natural water absorption.
  2. Extreme Rainfall: Current sponge city designs may struggle with intense rainfall.
  3. Climate Change: Designs need to accommodate changing rainfall patterns.
  4. Less-Developed Regions: Success requires targeted investments and capacity-building.

Importance: Sponge cities promote sustainability, climate resilience, and disaster risk reduction.


Indian Web Browser Development Challenge (IWBDC)


IWBDC fosters indigenous, secure, and user-friendly web browsers.


Key Points:

  1. Digital Signatures: Enhance security and authentication.
  2. User-Friendly: Improve user experience.
  3. Data Privacy: Protect user data.
  4. Self-Sufficiency: Reduce reliance on foreign browsers.


Scientists Design 2D Composite Quantum Material

Composite Quantum Material: A composite material with multiple quantum properties is developed.

Spintronics and Rashba Splitting: Relevant to spintronics, showcases Rashba splitting – electron spin bands separation.



  1. Spintronic Devices: High-performance devices with efficient spintronic technology.
  2. Quantum Technology: Advances in quantum computing, communication, and sensing.


New Spaceport in Tamil Nadu for Small Satellite Launch Vehicles (SSLV)

Context: Dr. Jitendra Singh, Union Minister, announces establishment of spaceport in Kulasekarapattinam, Tamil Nadu, for SSLV launches.


Key Highlights:

  1. Configuration: 3-stage launch vehicle.
  2. Propulsion: Three solid propulsion stages.
  3. Terminal Stage: Liquid propulsion-based Velocity Trimming Module (VTM).
  4. Dimensions: Diameter of 2 meters, length of 34 meters.
  5. Lift Off Weight: Around 120 tonnes.
  6. Payload Capacity: Can launch ~500kg satellite.
  7. Orbit: Designed for 500km planar orbit from SDSC/SHAR.
  8. Cost-Effective: Engineered for low-cost operations.
  9. Quick Turn-Around: Short preparation time between launches.
  10. Flexibility: Accommodates multiple satellites.
  11. On-Demand Launch: Feasibility for launch on demand.
  12. Minimal Infrastructure: Requires minimal launch infrastructure.
  13. Benefits: Enhanced flexibility, reduced costs, efficient operations.


Stages of SSLV and Dogleg Manoeuvre:

  1. Dogleg Manoeuvre: Planned trajectory shift after lift-off.
  2. Purpose: Avoids risky airspace or sensitive areas.
  3. Fuel Usage: Requires extra fuel but optimizes flight path.
  4. Advanced Systems: Employs advanced navigation and guidance systems.
  5. Payload Flexibility: Provides flexibility in launch direction for mission needs.
  6. Kulasekarapattinam: Dogleg not needed for launches from here.


Prelims Related Facts

Visa Issuance Suspensions Between France and Mali


Suspension results from Mali\’s 2020 coup, affecting citizens and diplomatic ties.


SuSwagatam Portal

Objective: The SuSwagatam portal streamlines e-pass issuance for the Supreme Court.

Purpose: Enhances efficiency, accessibility, visitor management, and security.


Athidhi Portal

Objective: Athidhi portal aids migrant workers\’ registration in Kerala.

Purpose: Prevents exploitation, ensures security, and aids policymaking.


Compulsorily Convertible Debentures (CCDs) Tax Notices to Investors:

  1. CCD Definition: Bond converting into stock within specified time.
  2. Hybrid Security: Between bonds and stocks.
  3. CCD Benefits: Attracts investors, lower interest rates, equity conversion.


Renaming of Kerala to \”Keralam\”:

  1. Origin: Mention in Emperor Asoka\’s Rock Edict II.
  2. Chera Dynasty: Reference to the ruler as \”Keralaputra.\”
  3. State Creation: State of Kerala formed on November 1, 1956.
  4. Name Change Process: Parliament\’s power under Article 3, State Legislature\’s input, majority vote, President\’s ratification.


UNESCO\’s Call for Smartphone Ban in Schools:

  1. UNESCO Definition: United Nations agency for education, culture, science.
  2. Ban Reasoning: Address classroom disruptions, enhance learning, protect children.


Understanding Federal Funds Rate and Its Impact:

  1. Federal Funds Rate: Interest rate for depository institutions\’ lending.
  2. Role and Impact: Influences interbank borrowing, broader rates, consumer spending, business investments.


Uttar Pradesh Defence Industrial Corridor (UPDIC) Transformative Initiative:

  1. Objective: Establish UP as global defence and aerospace hub.
  2. Strategic Nodes: Agra, Aligarh, Lucknow, Kanpur, Chitrakoot, Jhansi.
  3. Infrastructure Focus: Connectivity, expressways, airports, technology.


Hawaii\’s Wildfires and Island Features:


Courtesy: Reuters

  1. Impact: Devastating wildfires affect picturesque Maui Island.
  2. Physical Features: Volcanic mountains, coastlines, craters, lava fields.


Pradhan Mantri PVTG Development Mission



Key Information:

  1. Announcement: Pradhan Mantri PVTG Development Mission in Budget 2023-24.
  2. Aim: Improve socio-economic conditions of particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTGs).
  3. Objectives: Provide safe housing, clean water, sanitation, sustainable livelihood.
  4. Funding: Rs. 15,000 crore from Development Action Plan for Scheduled Tribes over three years.
  5. Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Tribal Affairs.


Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs):

  1. Definition: More vulnerable than regular Scheduled Tribes.
  2. Characteristics: Homogenous, small population, isolation, simple technology.
  3. Identification: 75 PVTGs identified in the country.
  4. Criteria: Pre-agricultural technology, low literacy, economic backwardness, stagnant or declining population.


Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana:


Courtesy: MIB_India

  1. Adoption: 1782 Gram Panchayats adopted under SAGY in the last five years.
  2. Launch: Initiated in 2014 on Lok Nayak Jai Prakash Narayan\’s birth anniversary.
  3. Goal: Develop three Adarsh Grams by March 2019, and additional five by each MP from 2019 to 2024.


World Lion Day:


Courtesy: MIB_India

  1. Observation: August 10 annually to raise lion conservation awareness.
  2. Asiatic Lion: Found in Gir forests of Gujarat, India.
  3. Conservation: \”Asiatic Lion Conservation Project\” initiated by Union Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change.
  4. IUCN Status: Endangered.


Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) Meeting:


Courtesy: Researchgate

  1. Purpose: Sustainable development of Amazon Basin.
  2. Members: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela.
  3. Belem Declaration: Recognizes Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation.


Amazon Rainforest:


  1. Significance: \”Lungs of the Earth,\” absorbs CO2, releases oxygen.
  2. Flora: Myrtle, Laurel, palm, rosewood, Brazil nut.
  3. Fauna: Jaguar, Manatee, Tapir, Capybara.
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