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Here are the topics covered for 10 August 2023: Keeladi, Nuh & Gurugram Riots: Unpacking the Dynamics and Implications, Coastal Aquaculture Authority (Amendment) Bill, 2023, INTERPOL Global Academy Network, Nationwide Digital Life Certificate Campaign 2.0, Solar Power Capacity of India, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) and India’s Clean Energy Future, Seed Technology and Sustainable Agriculture, Incident Response System (IRS), Land Restoration and Afforestation, Dam Safety and Water Resource Management in India, India-Vietnam Relations, Decarbonization, UFI (Universal Forces Industries Pvt. Ltd), Maya Operating System, SWATHI Mountains (Weapon Locating Radar), Tharosaurus Indicus (Dinosaur Fossil Discovery).
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
- Nuh & Gurugram Riots: Unpacking the Dynamics and Implications
GS Paper 2:
- Coastal Aquaculture Authority (Amendment) Bill, 2023
- INTERPOL Global Academy Network
- Nationwide Digital Life Certificate Campaign 2.0
GS Paper 3:
- Solar Power Capacity of India
- Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) and India’s Clean Energy Future
- Seed Technology and Sustainable Agriculture
- Incident Response System (IRS)
- Land Restoration and Afforestation
- Dam Safety and Water Resource Management in India
Prelims Related Facts
- India-Vietnam Relations
- UFI (Universal Forces Industries Pvt. Ltd)
- Maya Operating System
- SWATHI Mountains (Weapon Locating Radar)
- Tharosaurus Indicus (Dinosaur Fossil Discovery)
GS Paper 1
- Keeladi is an archaeological site located in Tamil Nadu, India, known for its historical significance and ongoing excavations.
- Recent Discovery:
- Archaeologists unearthed a unique crystal quartz weighing unit from the Sangam era at Keeladi.
- This discovery provides insights into ancient measuring practices and trade during that period.
- Additional Finds:
- The excavation also revealed artifacts such as a terracotta hopscotch, iron nail, various pottery types, and an earthen snake figurine.
- Historical Significance:
- The crystal quartz unit is historically significant, shedding light on material culture and trade practices of ancient Tamil Nadu.
- Ongoing Excavations:
- Keeladi is currently undergoing its ninth phase of excavations, and the findings have led to an extension of the timeline of the Sangam Era in Tamil Nadu.
Nuh & Gurugram Riots: Unpacking the Dynamics and Implications
The recent outbreak of violence in the Nuh district and Gurgaon, Haryana, has not only highlighted the persistent issue of Hindu-Muslim clashes in India but also unveiled a new dimension in terms of its nature, consequences, and underlying factors.
What is Communalism?
Communalism, in a broad sense, means a strong attachment to one’s own community. In popular discourse in India, it is understood as an unhealthy attachment to one’s own religion.
Competing Identities and Polarization: The violence in Nuh district and Gurgaon emerges as a reflection of competitive identity assertion within a polarized political environment.
State Response and Ideological Intent: The state’s response to the riots showcases a concerning ideological intent, as highlighted by the Haryana and Punjab Court’s observation labeling it “ethnic cleansing.”
Prayers Controversy and its Implications: The controversy surrounding prayer offers valuable insights into the dynamics of communal tension.
The evolution of communalism in India: Several key incidents and policies have played a crucial role in this evolution:
- Divide and Rule Strategy
- Partition of Bengal (1905)
- Communal Award (1932)
- Appeasement Policies
Factors Contributing to Communal Violence:
Communal violence often stems from divisive politics that exploit religious and cultural differences to achieve political goals.
Measures to Address Communalism:
To mitigate communal violence, comprehensive measures are imperative. These encompass judicial reform for speedy trials and compensation to deter violence.
The recent riots in Nuh and Gurgaon expose a worrying pattern of targeting minorities in a polarized political climate. The interplay of competing identities, state response, ideological influences, and communal dynamics underscores the complexity of the situation.
GS Paper 2
Coastal Aquaculture Authority (Amendment) Bill, 2023:
The Coastal Aquaculture Authority (Amendment) Bill, 2023 has been approved by both Houses of the Parliament of India to address regulations concerning coastal aquaculture.
- Empowering Small Farmers:
- Coastal aquaculture reaffirmed as permissible in Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ).
- Streamlines multi-agency clearances for marginal farmers, reducing bureaucratic hurdles.
- Exemptions and Clarity:
- Permits hatcheries in CRZ’s No Development Zone (NDZ), promoting sustainable aquaculture practices.
- Replaces stringent penalties with civil fines for non-compliance, fostering compliance while ensuring fair consequences.
- Environment-Friendly Practices:
- Encourages eco-friendly aquaculture methods like cage culture and seaweed cultivation.
- Focuses on maintaining disease-free stocks and limits antibiotic use, promoting healthier seafood production.
- Ease of Business:
- Simplifies operational processes for aquaculture establishments.
- Adjusts registration procedures for changes, enhancing administrative efficiency and ease of operation.
- Environmental Compliance:
- Sets emission standards to control pollution from aquaculture operations.
- Enforces the “Polluter Pays Principle” to ensure responsible environmental practices.
- Restricts sensitive area aquaculture to protect ecologically fragile regions.
- Growth and Achievements:
- Notable increase in shrimp production and seafood exports over the past decade.
- Triples shrimp production from 3.22L tons to 11.84L tons.
- Seafood exports double from Rs 30,213 Cr to Rs 63,969 Cr.
- Shrimp exports surge by 123% from Rs 19,368 Cr to Rs 43,135 Cr.
- Addressing Ambiguities:
- Resolves conflicts related to Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) notifications, providing clarity in regulations.
- Sustainable Vision:
- Introduces best practices, diversification, and safe products in aquaculture.
- Aims to amplify income and employment opportunities in the coastal communities.
- Economic Impact:
- Supports small farmers engaged in aquaculture activities.
- Fuels export growth, contributing to the economy.
- Spurs aquaculture-based jobs and entrepreneurship.
- Legislative Milestone:
- Passage of the Coastal Aquaculture Authority (Amendment) Bill signifies efficient regulation and industry expansion in the aquaculture sector.
Coastal Regulation Zones (CRZ):
- CRZ-I (Ecologically Sensitive Areas): Limited construction for specified projects; protection of ecologically sensitive zones like mangroves and coral reefs.
- CRZ-II (Developed Areas within Municipal Limits): Buildings allowed on landward side of hazardous line; certain activities permitted.
- CRZ-III (Undisturbed and Rural Areas): No development within No Development Zone (0-200m from High Tide Line); limited activities in restricted zone (200-500m).
- CRZ-IV (Aquatic Area): Traditional fishing permitted; strict prohibition on untreated sewage or waste disposal.
- Island Protection Zone Notification: Safeguarding unique ecosystems of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands.
INTERPOL Global Academy Network:
- Context: The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) Academy has become a member of the INTERPOL Global Academy Network, strengthening global law enforcement training collaboration.
- The INTERPOL Global Academy Network promotes collaboration among law enforcement training institutions worldwide.
- The CBI Academy’s inclusion as the 10th member enhances capacity building and training opportunities for police personnel globally.
- INTERPOL Global Academy Network:
- Established in 2019, the network supports INTERPOL’s mission of worldwide law enforcement training.
- Members from different regions collaborate to enhance training practices and methodologies.
- INTERPOL is an intergovernmental organization with 195 member countries.
- Its headquarters are located in Lyon, France, and it facilitates international police cooperation to combat transnational crime and terrorism.
- The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) serves as India’s designated National Central Bureau (NCB) within the INTERPOL network.
Nationwide Digital Life Certificate Campaign 2.0:
The Department of Pension & Pensioners’ Welfare (DoPPW) has issued guidelines for the Digital Life Certificate Campaign 2.0, benefiting central government pensioners.
- Annual submission of Life Certificates is essential for pensioners to continue receiving their pension.
- The campaign promotes the use of Digital Life Certificates (DLC) for convenience, utilizing biometric and Face Authentication technology.
- A successful campaign was conducted in November 2022, and another one is planned for November 2023.
- Guidelines include the involvement of nodal officers, awareness activities, doorstep banking, camps, and home visits.
- Digital Life Certificate (Jeevan Praman):
- Launched in 2014, Jeevan Praman offers a biometric-driven digital solution for pensioners to submit proof of pension continuation.
- The system utilizes Aadhaar-based biometric authentication, generating and storing Digital Life Certificates accessible to Pension Disbursing Agencies.
GS Paper 3
Solar Power Capacity of India:
The total installed solar power capacity in India has reached 70.1 GW, as of the latest update.
- Solar Potential Assessment:
- National Institute of Solar Energy projects India’s solar potential at a staggering 748 GW, considering wasteland coverage with Solar PV modules.
- Ambitious Renewable Goals:
- India aims to achieve a renewable capacity of 175 GW by 2022 and an impressive 500 GW by 2030, marking a significant expansion plan in the renewable energy sector.
- Solar PV Leadership:
- India ranks second in Asia and third globally for new solar PV capacity, with 13 GW added in 2021.
- It stands fourth in total solar installations, surpassing Germany for the first time.
- Leading Solar Energy Producers:
- Key states contributing significantly to solar energy production: Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka.
- Operational Schemes:
- Various operational schemes are in place to boost solar energy generation, including the Solar Park Scheme, Grid-Connected Solar PV Power Projects, and more.
Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) and India’s Clean Energy Future
The article addresses the challenge of climate change and the need for clean energy solutions in India. It introduces the concept of “Small Modular Reactors (SMRs)” as a potential solution.
Challenges of Clean Energy: Transitioning to clean energy sources like wind and solar is complex due to their intermittent nature. The demand for materials required for clean energy production is increasing, posing challenges.
Advantages of SMRs: SMRs are compact, efficient, and safe nuclear power systems. They offer benefits such as reliability, safety, and minimal environmental impact compared to traditional nuclear power plants.
Integration into India’s Energy Plan: SMRs can complement existing energy sources like coal and renewables, ensuring a stable energy supply. This aligns with India’s goal of achieving net-zero emissions by 2070.
Legal and Regulatory Changes: Adapting regulations to accommodate private sector participation and ensure safety and control of nuclear materials is crucial for successful SMR implementation.
Benefits and Public Trust: Transparency, adherence to safety protocols, and effective communication are essential to building public trust in SMRs and nuclear energy as a whole.
SMRs offer a promising avenue for India to meet its clean energy needs and address climate change. They provide a pathway to a sustainable and secure energy future.
Seed Technology and Sustainable Agriculture
India produces a lot of food, but there’s still not enough of certain foods like cereals, pulses, and vegetables, which can lead to not having enough healthy food for some people. To fix this, we need better ways of farming. Using good quality seeds and new technologies can help farmers grow more food and make it healthier. This article talks about how new seed technologies can make farming better and help our country.
- India has made progress in producing food, but there’s still a gap in certain foods, causing malnourishment.
- Better agricultural practices are needed, focusing on quality seeds and new technologies.
- Evolution of India’s Seed Industry:
- National Seeds Corporation and policies helped build India’s seed industry.
- Laws like the Protection of Plant Varieties & Farmers Rights Act and Bt cotton hybrids improved seeds and farming.
- Mitigating Climate Change Threats:
- Climate change, resource issues, and disasters challenge Indian farming.
- Using technologies and traditional knowledge can help meet Sustainable Development Goals.
- Potential of Millets:
- Millets are nutrient-rich and adaptable, great for sustainable farming.
- India can lead in millet production and improve seeds.
- Seed Technology: Enhancing Quality and Performance:
- Seed technology has grown with genetic changes, coatings, and treatments.
- These technologies make seeds strong against problems and help them grow well.
- Cost Considerations and Sustainability:
- Quality seeds are important and can increase yields and profits by 15-20%.
- Public and private efforts in research help make better seeds.
- Synergy Between Public and Private Sectors:
- Both public and private sectors need to work together for better seed technology.
- New technologies like AI-responsive sensors can help.
- Regulatory Mechanisms: Paving the Path Forward:
- Supportive rules are needed for new seed technologies to work.
- Guidelines for coated seeds and AI-based responses can reduce harm to the environment.
- Using better seed technology can help close the gap in food, make farming more resilient, and empower farmers.
- India needs to focus on good seeds and technologies for a healthier and secure future.
Incident Response System (IRS):
- Current Implementation Status:
- Several states and Union territories (UTs) have not yet implemented the Incident Response System (IRS), which is essential for disaster response.
- IRS Overview:
- IRS involves a composite team with various sections to address all potential disaster response requirements.
- Designates officers for various duties and provides training in respective roles.
- Emphasizes documentation for better planning, accountability, and analysis.
- Aims to reduce chaos and confusion during disaster response.
- Guidelines and Vision:
- NDMA issued guidelines for IRS under Section 6 of the DM Act, 2005.
- Aims for effective, efficient, and comprehensive disaster management in India.
- Vision of IRS: Minimize loss of life and property through a standardized disaster response mechanism.
- Reduces ad-hoc measures in disaster response.
- Flexibility: IRS is a flexible system where not all sections need activation simultaneously.
- Predefined Roles: Roles and duties are predetermined, and personnel are trained accordingly.
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA):
- Origin and Composition:
- Established in 2006 under the Disaster Management Act of 2005.
- Chaired by the Prime Minister with nine other members.
- Vice-Chairperson duties assigned from the nine members.
- Decentralization: District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMA) and State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) established.
National Disaster Reaction Force (NDRF):
- Purpose and Structure:
- Constituted under Section 44 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005.
- Currently comprises 12 battalions, each with 1149 personnel.
Land Restoration and Afforestation:
- Recent initiatives in India aimed at combating land degradation and promoting afforestation have been highlighted.
- Nagar Van Yojana (NVY):
- Introduced in 2020 with the goal of creating urban forests (Nagar Vans) in cities with local bodies.
- Aims to provide healthier urban environments and contribute to sustainability.
- Key features include creating green spaces, raising awareness about biodiversity, and promoting environmental improvement.
- Initiatives to Combat Land Degradation:
- National Forest Policy (NFP) 1988: Aims for one-third of total land area under forest or tree cover for ecological balance and prevention of soil erosion.
- National Mission for a Green India (GIM): Part of National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) to enhance forest and tree cover.
- Forest Fire Protection & Management Scheme (FFPM): Focuses on preventing and managing forest fires.
- Compensatory Afforestation Fund: Utilizes funds for afforestation projects in lieu of forest land diversion.
- State-Specific Initiatives:
- Mission Haritha Haram: Telangana’s program to increase green cover.
- Green Wall: Haryana’s plan for a green belt around Aravalli range.
- Afforestation Achievements:
- Over 18.94 million hectares of land covered through afforestation from 2011-12 to 2021-22.
- Measures to Ensure Success:
- Integrated Landscape Management: Holistic land-use planning and sustainable practices.
- Science-Based Species Selection: Research-based selection of tree species.
- Bio-Engineering Solutions: Use of bio-remediation techniques for land health.
- Community Participation: Engaging local communities for long-term success.
- Sustainable Financing and Monitoring:
- Mobilize funds from budgets, international sources, and public-private partnerships.
- Robust monitoring systems for progress and impact assessment.
Dam Safety and Water Resource Management in India:
- Recent Strides:
- India’s Minister of State for Jal Shakti highlights progress in dam safety and water resource management.
- Dam Safety Act, 2021:
- Enacted to ensure proper surveillance, inspection, operation, and maintenance of dams.
- Establishes National Committee on Dam Safety and National Dam Safety Authority.
- Institutional Mechanism:
- National Committee on Dam Safety (NCDS) and State-level Dam Safety Organisations.
- National Hydrology Project (NHP) for enhancing water resource management capabilities.
- Challenges and Measures:
- Geological challenges and seismic activity.
- Ageing infrastructure and climate change impacts.
- Interstate cooperation and emergency response.
- Way Forward:
- Dynamic project planning, climate change considerations, training programs.
- Strengthening cooperation, community engagement, and sustainable practices.
Prelims Related Facts
Decarbonization involves reducing carbon emissions and transitioning to cleaner energy sources to mitigate environmental impact.
- UN Goal 7:
- UN Goal 7 focuses on ensuring affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy for all, highlighting the importance of transitioning away from fossil fuels.
- Challenges of Decarbonization:
- Challenges include the need for affordable and abundant solar and wind energy and addressing the demand for critical minerals used in clean-energy technologies.
- Nuclear Power’s Role:
- Nuclear power contributes around 10% of global electricity and helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
- It provides a reliable energy source and supports grid stability.
- Small Modular Reactors (SMRs):
- SMRs offer advantages such as compact size, safety features, and cost efficiency.
- They have the potential to contribute to affordable and sustainable energy production.
UFI (Universal Forces Industries Pvt. Ltd):
- Role: UFI collaborates in the Prime Minister’s vision for bamboo-based ethanol production, leveraging its expertise in modern process technology.
- Establishment: Founded in 1996, UFI has over 27 years of experience and is a leader in modern process technology.
- Clientele: UFI serves over 150 patrons globally and holds certifications for quality standards such as ISO 9001:2015 and IBR, ASME.
Maya Operating System:
- Ministry of Defence to replace Microsoft OS with Maya Operating System, based on open-source Ubuntu developed locally.
- Change due to increasing cyber and malware attacks on defense and critical infrastructure.
SWATHI Mountains (Weapon Locating Radar):
- Induction and Variants:
- Indian Army inducted the lighter and more compact version of the Weapon Locating Radar (WLR-M) named “Swathi Mountains.”
- Developed by Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL).
- Two versions: Swathi Plains (WLR) and Swathi Mountains (WLR-M).
- Swathi Plains version for locating hostile guns, mortars, and rockets.
- Swathi Mountains version designed for operations in mountainous terrains.
Tharosaurus Indicus (Dinosaur Fossil Discovery):
- Discovery and Name:
- Oldest fossil remains of a long-necked, plant-eating dicraeosaurid dinosaur discovered in Jaisalmer.
- Named Tharosaurus indicus after the Thar desert and its country of origin.
- Previous dicraeosaurid fossils found in other continents but not in India.