Table of Contents
- How does a cyclone affect the monsoon’s onset?
Facts for Prelims
- Kilauea Volcano
- Food Safety Index
- Bagh Print
How does a cyclone affect the monsoon’s onset?
- Global warming affects the monsoons in various ways, including the onset, withdrawal, total rainfall, and extreme weather events.
- It also has an impact on cyclones over the Indian Ocean and typhoons over the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
Influence of Warmer Arctic Ocean:
- Cyclone formations are occurring closer to the monsoon onset during the pre-monsoon season.
- This change is possibly due to the influence of a warmer Arctic Ocean on winds over the Arabian Sea.
Interaction of Tropical Oceans:
- The monsoon is affected by the Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific tropical oceans.
- The atmospheric bridge from the Arctic and the oceanic tunnel, as well as the atmospheric bridge from the Southern Ocean, also play a role.
Importance of Cyclone Position:
- The position of cyclones in the North Indian Ocean can have positive or negative impacts on the monsoon’s onset.
- The circulation of winds around cyclones affects the transition of the monsoon trough, a low-pressure region that is characteristic of the monsoons.
- Cyclone Mocha developed in the Bay of Bengal in May and influenced the monsoon’s onset.
- Unusual anticyclones over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal led to warming in these regions.
- Cyclone Biparjoy’s interaction with the monsoon trough and late monsoon onset are linked to typhoons in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
Impact of Typhoons and Cyclones:
- Typhoon Mawar pulled winds across the equator into the North Indian Ocean, affecting the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.
- Southwesterly winds over the Arabian Sea bring moisture to the Indian subcontinent, while over the Bay of Bengal, they hinder the monsoon’s progress.
Struggle of the Monsoon Trough:
- Strong southwesterly winds over the Bay of Bengal have made it challenging for the monsoon trough to reach Kerala.
- This is compared to a busy highway with heavy traffic, where the monsoon trough is like a little car trying to cross.
Complex Interplay and Climate Change:
- The interplay of global warming, cyclogenesis, pre-monsoon cyclones, and typhoons adds complexity to monsoon dynamics.
- The reliability of the monsoon system and its predictions are affected by climate change.
- A late monsoon onset doesn’t necessarily indicate a deficit in the monsoon.
However, this year’s situation, including an impending El Niño, makes it unique and calls for cautious observation and preparedness.
The Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island erupted recently, according to an advisory from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).
About Kilauea Volcano:
Location and Activity
- Kilauea is a volcano located on the southern part of the Island of Hawai’i, also known as Big Island.
- It is the youngest and most active Hawaiian shield volcano.
- The volcano is in near-constant eruption, with vents releasing lava either at its summit (caldera) or along the rift zones.
Summit and Crater
- Kilauea has a large summit caldera with a central crater called
- According to Hawaiian legends, Halemaumau is believed to be the home of the fire goddess Pele.
- Until 1924, the caldera contained a lava lake, which was a spectacular sight.
- Shield volcanoes are a specific type of volcano.
- They typically erupt basalt lava, which is highly fluid when it erupts.
- Unlike composite volcanoes with conical peaks, shield volcanoes have broad shapes with gentle slopes.
- Eruptions at shield volcanoes are generally not explosive unless water enters the vent.
The Hawaiian shield volcanoes, including Kilauea, are well-known examples of this type.
Food Safety Index
Recently, the union Health Minister released the fifth State Food Safety Index in New Delhi.
About Food Safety Index:
What is the Food Safety Index?
- The Food Safety Index is an annual assessment conducted by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).
- It was started in 2018-19 to help states and union territories improve their food safety standards.
Purpose and Parameters:
- The index serves as a tool to encourage states and union territories to enhance their performance in ensuring food safety.
- It evaluates their food safety ecosystems based on five important parameters:
- Human Resources and Institutional Data
- Food Testing – Infrastructure and Surveillance
- Training & Capacity Building
- Consumer Empowerment
Objective and Evaluation:
- The Food Safety Index is a dynamic benchmarking model that combines both quantitative and qualitative factors.
- It provides an objective framework for assessing and comparing food safety measures across all states and union territories in India.
Rankings in the 2022-23 Report:
Large states category:
- Kerala secured the top ranking among the large states.
- Punjab and Tamil Nadu followed as the second and third top-ranking states.
Small states category:
- Goa claimed the top ranking among the small states.
- Manipur and Sikkim were the second and third top-ranking states in this category.
Union territories category:
Jammu and Kashmir, Chandigarh, and Delhi achieved the highest rankings among the union territories.
MP Tourism Board in association with district administration Dhar recently launched a training camp on manufacturing sustainable bags based on Bagh Print.
About Bagh Print:
Origin and Unique Technique:
- Bagh Print is a special block printing technique that originated in the village of Bagh in Madhya Pradesh, India.
- The name “Bagh” comes from the river ‘Baghini’ that flows through the village.
- The craft was introduced by a community of Muslim Khatris who migrated from Manawar to Bagh in 1962.
Weaving and Printing Process:
- Bagh Print involves the combination of weaving and hand block printing.
- The artisans use cotton and silk cloth as the base material for printing.
- A mixture of corroded iron fillings, alum, and Alizarin is applied to the fabric as a treatment.
- Skilled artisans create intricate patterns and designs using wooden blocks.
Use of Natural Dyes:
- Bagh Prints are known for their vibrant colors, which are obtained from natural dyes.
- The dyes used in the process are eco-friendly and safe for the environment.
- The craftsmen make imaginative use of red and black natural colors to enhance the designs.
- After the printing is complete, the fabric is washed multiple times in the flowing waters of the river.
- This step helps to remove excess dye and enhance the colors.
- The printed fabric is then dried under the sun for a specific period to achieve a fine luster.