Table of Contents
- A global order as technology’s much needed pole star
Facts for Prelims
- Exercise Ekatha
A global order as technology’s much needed pole star
The rapid development of technology since the Dot-com bubble burst in 2000 has transformed our societies and daily lives. While it has made life easier, it has also brought complex challenges that require us to rethink fundamental concepts in governance.
Challenges to the Notion of Nation-State:
- Technology has disrupted the traditional idea of a nation-state defined by geographical borders.
- Cyber-attacks and virtual activities occur across borders, challenging the socio-economic and political existence of nation-states.
- Web3, peer-to-peer networks, and blockchains allow state and non-state actors to influence various areas outside the control of nation-states.
- Geographically-based rules are no longer easily enforceable due to the global nature of technology.
- Virtual activities can easily cross borders, making it challenging to enforce the laws of a specific nation-state.
- Lack of globally-accepted norms and cooperation from other geographies hinder the enforcement of laws.
Incapacity to Regulate Technology:
- Governments struggle to administer and regulate emerging technologies.
- Non-state actors, including multinational corporations and supranational organizations, operate independently of traditional administrative and regulatory institutions.
- Private entities provide services that were once the domain of the government, such as topographical maps.
Governance and Technology Complexity:
- Tech giants hold significant economic power and influence through data.
- Data has become a crucial raw material, and a few companies control it, challenging sovereignty, jurisdiction, and privacy.
- A principle-based global order for technology would help address enforceability challenges and guide emerging economies.
- Digital health and data sharing require a global regulatory system trusted by all countries.
The Need for Global Regulation:
- India’s leadership role as the current chair of the G-20 provides an opportunity to drive a globally-coordinated approach to technology regulation.
- A principle-based regulation architecture can address cross-border data flow, crypto-currencies, and other digital assets.
- Similar to India’s initiatives in green initiatives, such as the International Solar Alliance, a global order for technology governance is crucial.
The rapid advancement of technology calls for a reevaluation of traditional notions of governance and the nation-state. Global cooperation and a principle-based regulatory framework are needed to address the challenges posed by technology and ensure a trusted and inclusive digital future.
Twenty-five crew members and 152 of the 2,144 passengers onboard the 2023 voyage of the Celebrity Summit recently reported norovirus symptoms.
Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes stomach-related illness. It is sometimes called the “stomach flu” or the “winter vomiting bug.” Anyone can get infected with norovirus, and it spreads easily and quickly.
- Noroviruses commonly spread through contaminated food, water, or surfaces.
- You can get infected by consuming contaminated food or water, especially if it was not prepared properly.
- Close contact with a person who has a norovirus infection can also lead to transmission.
- The first symptoms of norovirus typically appear one to two days after exposure.
- Common symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- Patients may also experience abdominal pain, fever, headaches, and body aches.
- Severe cases can result in dehydration due to the loss of fluids.
- Currently, there are no vaccines available to prevent norovirus infection.
- Treatment mainly focuses on relieving the symptoms.
- It is crucial to stay hydrated during the acute phase of the illness.
- In severe cases, patients may require intravenous rehydration fluids.
- Norovirus illness can occur multiple times in a person’s life.
This is because there are many different types of noroviruses, and immunity to one type does not protect against others.
Goa Power Minister recently said that bitumen used in road construction is a major cause of pollution.
Bitumen is a thick, sticky substance made from petroleum. It can be found in natural deposits like oil sands and pitch lakes or obtained as a byproduct during crude oil distillation. Bitumen is known for its density and viscosity.
- Bitumen is made up of large hydrocarbon molecules called asphaltenes and resins, which give it its dense and viscous properties.
- It often contains metals like nickel and vanadium, as well as nonmetallic elements like nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur.
Movement and Deformation:
- Bitumen does not flow naturally at normal temperatures; it needs to be heated or mixed with lighter oils to be moved through pipes.
- Under heavy loads, bitumen can permanently deform and crack if subjected to continuous stress.
- Bitumen is widely used in the construction industry for its excellent waterproofing and adhesive properties.
- It is commonly used in road and highway construction for durable and long-lasting surfaces.
- It is used for waterproofing boats and other marine vessels to protect them from water damage.
- Roofing companies utilize bitumen in the manufacturing of roofing products.
Bitumen is also used for sealing and insulating purposes in various building materials such as carpet tile backing and paint.
Indian Navy divers and Marine Commandos are in the Maldives for the sixth edition of Exercise Ekatha.
Exercise Ekatha is an annual exercise conducted between the navies of India and Maldives. Its main objective is to improve cooperation and coordination in diving and special operations.
- The Maldives holds a strategic location at the crossroads of important sea routes in the Indian Ocean. This makes it significant for India, especially considering China’s increasing assertiveness in the region.
- India was one of the first countries to recognize the Maldives after its independence in 1965 and establish diplomatic relations.
- In 1972, India established its mission at the level of CDA (Charge d’Affaires) and appointed a resident High Commissioner in 1980.
- In November 2004, the Maldives opened a full-fledged High Commission in New Delhi, which was one of its only four diplomatic missions worldwide at the time.
- A trade agreement was signed between India and the Maldives in 1981, facilitating the export of essential commodities.
- Defence and security have been significant areas of cooperation between India and the Maldives since 1988.
- India provides a large number of training opportunities for the Maldivian National Defence Force (MNDF), meeting approximately 70% of their defence training needs.
- In 2016, the two countries signed a comprehensive action plan to strengthen their defence partnership.
- In addition to Exercise Ekatha, the Indian Army and the Maldives National Defence Forces have been conducting Exercise Ekuverin since 2009.
- The term “Ekuverin” means “Friends” in the Dhivehi language.
This exercise focuses on promoting cooperation and mutual understanding between the armies of India and the Maldives.