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Here are the topics covered for 06 January 2024:
GS-1: Warli Tribes and Leopards
GS-2: Medical Education Regulations, 2023
GS-3: Fuel Cell-Based Power System, India’s GDP Estimates
Facts For Prelims: POEM3, Digi Yatra
Warli Tribes and Leopards
- Unlike common fear, Warlis worship leopards as Waghoba, considering them part of their environment.
Coexistence of Warli Tribes and Leopards
- Mumbai has a notable leopard density, yet the Warli community coexists with leopards in the area.
- The Warlis, aware of the leopards\’ presence, take precautions such as ensuring children stay indoors after 6 pm to minimize encounters.
- Interactions between the Warlis and leopards are frequent, indicating a unique relationship between the human community and the wildlife.
- The Warlis hold a deep reverence for leopards, as evidenced by the presence of shrines dedicated to Waghoba, a deity associated with leopards.
Other Tribes Co-existing with Animals:
|Bishnois revere blackbucks, protecting them from harm.
|Jarawas (Andaman Islands)
|Jarawas live in harmony with diverse wildlife on the Andaman Islands. They maintain sustainable hunting practices and have minimal impact on the environment.
|Van Gujjars (Uttarakhand)
|Nomadic Van Gujjars coexist with elephants in the Himalayan forests. They follow traditional practices, respecting wildlife habitats and minimizing conflicts.
|Mishing Tribe (Assam)
|Mishing people in Assam coexist with the Gangetic River dolphin. They consider the dolphin sacred and have rituals that promote its conservation.
|Kani Tribe (Kerala)
|Kani tribe in the Western Ghats coexists with elephants and other wildlife.
Post Graduate Medical Education Regulations, 2023
- The National Medical Commission (NMC) has for the first time introduced post-doctoral fellowship courses in medical colleges.
- Medical institutions require permission from the National Medical Commission or designated Boards to start post-graduate courses.
- The application for starting post-graduate courses can be submitted one year after obtaining permission for the undergraduate course.
- Non-teaching government-owned hospitals can start post-graduate courses without an undergraduate college if they comply with prescribed norms and procedures.
- Once permitted, the post-graduate course and awarded degree are considered recognized, and the permitted seats are recognized for degree registration.
- Medical colleges or institutions offering such courses are considered accredited for the specified qualification.
Fuel Cell-Based Power System
- The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has successfully tested a 100 GW class Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell based Power System (FCPS).
- POEM3 was launched onboard PSLV-C58 for a successful test.
What is FCPS?
- Hydrogen Fuel Cells generate electricity through electrochemical processes, distinguishing them from combustion-based conventional generators.
- They directly convert hydrogen and oxygen gases into electricity, producing only pure water and heat as byproducts.
- The absence of intermediate steps enhances their efficiency, making them well-suited for space missions, particularly where electric power, water, and heat are essential.
- Fuel Cells are utilized in space missions involving humans due to their ability to fulfill multiple requirements with a single system.
- They are emission-free, making them environmentally friendly and ideal for societal applications.
- Fuel Cells have potential applications in replacing engines in various vehicles and powering standby systems, offering advantages such as comparable range and recharge times to conventional engines.
- The technology is expected to contribute to emission-free transportation, providing an alternative to traditional combustion engines.
- In space stations, Fuel Cells serve as an ideal power source, supplying both power and pure water for various needs.
India’s GDP Estimates
- India\’s real GDP growth for the fiscal year 2023-24 is projected to be 7.3%, slightly higher than the 7.2% recorded in the previous year, according to the initial advance estimates of national income released by the National Statistical Office (NSO).
- India\’s GDP growth for the second half of the fiscal year is expected to be around 6.9% to 7%, following the 7.7% growth in the first half.
- A slight easing in Gross Value Added (GVA) growth from 7% in 2022-23 to 6.9% in the current fiscal year, with nominal GDP growth at 8.9% compared to the Budget estimate of 10.5%.
- Analysts warn that this may lead to the fiscal deficit exceeding the targeted 5.9% of GDP to reach around 6%.
- The GVA growth for the farm sector is anticipated to decline from 4% to 1.8%.
- Also, Trade, Hotels, Transport, Communication, and Services are set to decline.
- The concerning aspect of the GDP data is the weak consumption growth at 4.4%.
- The share of private final consumption expenditure in GDP is expected to drop this year to 56.9%
- While the investment rate is likely to pick up to nearly 30% of GDP, driven by government capex.
- NSO acts as the nodal agency under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation for the planned development of the statistical system in the country, lays down and maintains norms and standards in the field of statistics, involving concepts and definitions, methodology of data collection, processing of data and dissemination of results.
- The National Statistical Office (NSO) consists of the Central Statistical Office (CSO), the Computer Center, and the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO).
Facts For Prelims
- POEM (PSLV Orbital Experimental Module) is an ISRO experimental mission that conducts scientific experiments in orbit using the leftover PS4 stage of the PSLV launch vehicle as an orbital platform.
- As a stabilized platform, the PS4 stage would orbit the Earth.
- A separate Navigation, Guidance, and Control (NGC) system achieves attitude stabilization.
- The solar panels installed around the PS4 tank and a Li-Ion battery power POEM.
- It uses four sun sensors, a magnetometer, gyros, and NavIC to navigate.
- It has dedicated control thrusters that use Helium gas storage. It has a telecommand feature enabled.
- POEM also carries cargo.
- The Ministry of Civil Aviation is adding a Digital experience for Air Travellers through the DigiYatra Platform.
- The \’DigiYatra\’ is an industry-led initiative coordinated by the Ministry in line with Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi\’s Digital India vision to transform the nation into a digitally empowered society.
- Digi Yatra – Digital processing of passengers at the airports. Passengers will be automatically processed based on a facial recognition system at check points like; Entry point checks, Entry Security Check, and Aircraft Boarding, Additionally this will also facilitate self-Bag Drop and Check-in, using facial recognition to identify pax and data recall.
- Digi Yatra will facilitate paperless travel and avoid identity checks at multiple points.