Daily News Analysis 04 Jan. 2024 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for  04 January 2024:

GS-1: Savitri Bai Phule & Rani Velu Nachiyar

GS-3: Tsunami, Palm Oil,Space Missions

Facts For Prelims: SKAO


Savitribai Phule & Rani Velu Nachiyar


  • Recently, Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid tributes to social reformers i.e., Savitri Bai Phule and Rani Velu Nachiyar.


Savitribai Phule (3 Jan 1831 – 10 March 1897)

  • She, belonging to the Mali Community, not only defied societal norms but emerged as an educator.
  • A staunch critic of caste hierarchies, and an accomplished writer. 
  • She entered into matrimony with Jyotirao Phule at a young age.
  • She, along with her husband, established the first school for girls in Pune in 1848. 


Rani Velu Nachiyar (3 Jan 1730 – 25 Dec 1796)

  • The first queen to fight against the British colonial power in India.
  • She is known by Tamils as Veeramangai.
  • She was the princess of Ramanathapuram and the only child of Raja Chellamuthu.
  • She married the king of Sivagangai.




  • Japan is situated in a seismically active region and has once again grappled with an earthquake which is followed by a tsunami.


About tsunami?

  • A tsunami, originating from the Japanese term \”harbor wave,\” is characterized by a sequence of immense ocean waves triggered by seismic activity such as earthquakes or volcanic eruptions beneath the ocean. 
  • The velocity of a tsunami is contingent on the water depth through which it traverses, with deeper waters facilitating faster tsunami movement.
  • When an earthquake occurs beneath the ocean, a substantial section of the ocean floor may experience abrupt vertical movement, either upward or downward. This sudden displacement of a significant volume of water can generate powerful tsunami waves.
  • In the case of a volcanic eruption in the ocean, the lava expelled from the volcano displaces the surrounding water, creating a large wave. This phenomenon contributes to the formation of tsunami waves associated with underwater volcanic activity.


Why Japan is Prone to Earthquakes and Tsunamis?

  • Certainly, Japan is located along the \’Pacific Ring of Fire,\’ a highly active tectonic belt renowned for seismic and volcanic activity worldwide. 
  • The term \’ring\’ describes an imaginary horseshoe-shaped zone tracing the periphery of the Pacific Ocean, where numerous earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are prevalent.
  • Within the expanse of the Ring of Fire, various tectonic plates, such as the Pacific Plate, Eurasian Plate, and Indo-Australian Plate, continuously interact, collide, and converge. 
  • These interactions lead to seismic events, volcanic eruptions, and the occurrence of tsunamis, illustrating the dynamic geological processes within this geologically active region.


Palm Oil


  • India’s palm oil imports rose in December to their highest in four months as purchases of refined palmolein surged because of competitive prices

India’s Palm Oil Imports

  • In December, India\’s palm oil imports increased by 1.9% compared to the previous month, reaching 886,000 metric tons, according to estimates from dealers. 
  • Refined palm oil imports experienced a substantial surge of 47%, amounting to 252,000 tons during the month. 
  • Indian refiners faced a negative refining margin for crude palm oil, while exporting countries offered refined palm oil at a more competitive price, making it an attractive option for buyers.
  • Palm oil is known for being the most economical naturally available edible oil, with its neutral taste making it suitable for various food applications. 
  • Its stability at high temperatures makes it ideal for reuse and deep frying. 
  • Palm oil is also a primary component in vanaspati (hydrogenated vegetable oil). 
  • Despite restrictions on refined palm oil imports, the immediate impact on food inflation is unlikely, given that palm oil is not commonly used in Indian households, and crude palm oil (CPO) imports continue.

Use of Palm Oil

  • Palm oil, derived from the mesocarp of oil palms, serves various purposes, including cooking oil, cosmetics, processed foods, chocolates, spreads, soaps, shampoos, cleaning products, and biofuel. 
  • Indonesia and Malaysia contribute nearly 90% of global palm oil production, with Indonesia leading with over 45 million tonnes in 2021. 
  • Despite criticism for reported unsustainable practices, deforestation, and exploitative labor practices, palm oil remains popular due to its cost-effectiveness and higher oil yield per hectare than other vegetable oil sources like soybean.


Space Missions

  • Europa Clipper: NASA will launch Europa Clipper, which will explore one of Jupiter’s largest moons, Europa. Europa is slightly smaller than the Earth’s moon, with a surface made of ice. Beneath its icy shell, Europa likely harbors a saltwater ocean, which scientists expect contains over twice as much water as all the oceans here on Earth combined.
  • Artemis II Launch: The Artemis programme, named after Apollo’s twin sister in Greek mythology, is NASA’s plan to return to the moon. It will send humans to the moon for the first time since 1972, including the first woman and the first person of color.
  • VIPER: VIPER, which stands for Volatiles Investigating Polar Exploration Rover, is a robot the size of a golf cart that NASA will use to explore the moon’s south pole in late 2024.
  • Lunar Trailblazer and PRIME-1: NASA has recently invested in a class of small, low-cost planetary missions called SIMPLEx, which stands for Small, Innovative Missions for Planetary Exploration
  • JAXA’s Martian: The JAXA MMX mission concept to study Phobos and Deimos, Mars’ moons. The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, or JAXA, has a robotic mission in development called the Martian Moon eXploration, or MMX, planned for launch around September 2024.
  • ESA’s Hera Mission: Hera is a mission by the European Space Agency to return to the DidymosDimorphos asteroid system that NASA’s DART mission visited in 2022.



Facts For Prelims



  • India has recently been approved to join the Square Kilometre Array Observatory (SKAO) project.
  • The SKA Observatory is an intergovernmental organization that unites entities from ten countries, namely Australia, Canada, China, India, Italy, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, the Netherlands, and the UK. 
  • With its headquarters located in the United Kingdom, its primary mandate is to construct and manage state-of-the-art radio telescopes aimed at revolutionizing the understanding of the Universe.
  • The observatory\’s goals encompass delving into the formation and evolution of galaxies, exploring fundamental physics in extreme environments, and investigating the origins of life. 
  • It comprises two telescopes situated at radio-quiet sites in South Africa and Australia, along with accompanying facilities designed to support the telescopes\’ operations.


Reverse Flipping

  • \”Reverse flipping\” is a term employed in business contexts, referring to the phenomenon where overseas start-ups relocate their domicile to India and opt for listing on Indian stock exchanges. 
  • This trend involves start-ups that had previously moved their holding companies outside India contemplating a strategic return to the country. 

The Economic Survey of 2022-23 has recognized the concept of reverse flipping and proposed potential measures to facilitate this process, including streamlining processes related to tax holidays, taxation of ESOPs (Employee Stock Ownership Plans), managing capital flows, and minimizing layers of taxation.

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