7 Dec 2023 | UPSC Current Affairs: Coastal Erosion, NCRB Crime Report, Free Digital Tools, Global Climate

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GS- 1: Coastal Erosion


  • The National Centre for Coastal Research (NCCR) has conducted a comprehensive analysis of India’s coastline changes from 1990 to 2016, revealing insights into coastal erosion. This analysis, which covers the entire Indian coastline, highlights the extent of erosion, accretion, and stable areas.

About Coastal Erosion:

  • Coastal erosion is a pressing environmental issue affecting various stretches of India’s shoreline. According to the National Centre for Coastal Research (NCCR), 34% of the coast is eroding, 28% is accreting, and 38% is stable.
  • Notably, regions like West Bengal and Pondicherry experience erosion exceeding 50%, while Odisha stands out with more than 50% accretion.

Impact on Coastal Ecosystem:

  • The erosion poses significant threats to the coastal ecosystem, including the loss of land, habitats, and the livelihoods of fishermen.
  • Receding coastlines lead to a reduction in space for essential activities like parking boats, mending nets, and fishing operations.

Government Measures to Combat Coastal Erosion:

  • Hazard Line: The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEFCC) has delineated a hazard line for the entire coastline. This line helps in disaster management planning, considering shoreline changes and sea-level rise due to climate change.
  • Coastal Zone Management Plans: The hazard line is incorporated into Coastal Zone Management Plans, guiding states and union territories in adaptive and mitigation measures.
  • Coastal Regulation Zone Notification, 2019: MoEFCC has notified regulations to conserve coastal stretches, marine areas, and ensure livelihood security for local communities. The regulations permit erosion control measures along the coast.
  • No Development Zones (NDZ): The notification establishes NDZ along various coastal areas to prevent encroachment and erosion.
  • Flood Management Scheme: Implemented by the Ministry of Jal Shakti, this scheme aids states in executing anti-sea erosion projects using their resources, with the Union Government providing technical, advisory, and promotional assistance.
  • Coastal Management Information System (CMIS): Initiated under the “Development of Water Resources Information System,” CMIS collects near-shore coastal data crucial for planning, designing, and maintaining coastal protection structures.
  • Coastal Erosion Mitigation: Specific mitigation measures have been taken in vulnerable areas like Puducherry and Chellanam in Kerala, emphasizing the restoration and protection of coastal regions.


  • Coastal erosion demands a comprehensive approach, and the government’s initiatives underscore the importance of balancing development with environmental conservation.
  • Ongoing efforts aim to protect vulnerable coastal stretches and ensure sustainable coastal management, taking into account the dynamic nature of India’s coastline.

Elderly Population in India: Issues and Challenges | UPSC

GS- 2: NCRB’s Crime in India 2022 Report


  • The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) released its annual report “Crime in India for 2022,” providing insights into crime trends across the nation.

Key Highlights:

Overall Crime Statistics:

  • Over 58,00,000 cognizable crimes registered, showing a 4.5% decline from 2021.
  • Crime rate per lakh population dropped from 445.9 to 422.2.

Safest City:

  • Kolkata emerged as the safest city, followed by Pune and Hyderabad.

Rise in Cyber Crimes:

  • Cybercrime reporting increased by 24.4%, with cyber fraud being the majority.

Suicides and Causes:

  • Over 1.7 Lakh suicides in 2022, a 4.2% increase from 2021.
  • Major causes included family problems, marriage-related issues, and unemployment.

Crimes Against SCs and STs:

  • Increase in crimes and atrocities against Scheduled Castes and Tribes, particularly in states like Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

Crimes Against Women:

  • 4,45,256 cases reported, a 4% increase from 2021.

Crimes Against Children:

  • 8.7% increase in crimes against children, with a majority related to kidnapping and abduction.

Crime against Senior Citizens:

  • 9.3% increase in cases, with hurt being the predominant crime.

Animal Attacks:

  • A 19% increase in incidents, with Maharashtra reporting the highest number.

Economic Offences:

  • Rise in economic offences, with FCF being the majority.

Crimes Against Foreigners:

  • A 28% increase in cases against foreigners.

High Chargesheeting Rates:

  • Kerala, Puducherry, and West Bengal had the highest chargesheeting rates.


  • The NCRB report offers valuable insights into crime dynamics, necessitating a comprehensive and targeted approach to address specific challenges.
  • Policymakers, law enforcement agencies, and civil society can use this information to formulate effective crime prevention strategies and strengthen the criminal justice system.

GS- 3: Free of Cost Digital Tools to Marginalized Communities


  • The Minister of State for Education recently provided insights in the Lok Sabha regarding the government’s efforts to provide free digital tools to marginalized communities, aligning with the National Education Policy 2020.

About the Initiatives:

PM e-Vidya:

  • PM eVidya Initiative: Introduced as part of Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan in 2020, PM e-Vidya unifies digital, online, and on-air education efforts for multi-mode access.
  • Components: Includes DIKSHA, DTH TV Channels, CBSE Podcast- Shiksha Vani, DAISY, virtual labs, and Skilling e-labs.

Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing (DIKSHA):

  • DIKSHA Portal and Mobile App: Provides a repository of eBooks and e-Contents created by States/UTs and national organizations for school education.

PM e-VIDYA DTH TV Channels:

  • Expansion: From 12 to 200 channels, offering supplementary education in various Indian languages for classes 1-12.

CBSE Podcast- Shiksha Vani:

  • Promotion: Actively encouraged to utilize radio, community radio, and CBSE podcast for educational purposes.

Digitally Accessible Information System (DAISY):

  • Special E-content: Developed for visually and hearing impaired individuals on DAISY and in sign language on NIOS website/YouTube.

Virtual Labs and Skilling e-labs:

  • Objective: Promote critical thinking skills and creativity through 750 virtual labs and 75 Skilling e-labs by 2023.

Samagra Shiksha:

  • Coverage: Includes ICT and digital initiatives for Government and Aided schools from classes VI to XII.

Sathee Portal:

  • Collaboration: Developed in partnership with IIT Kanpur to assist students preparing for competitive exams across the country.


  • Digital Divide: Ensuring equitable access to digital tools in marginalized communities.
  • Digital Literacy: Addressing challenges related to digital literacy and skill development.


  • Awareness Campaigns: Conducting extensive awareness campaigns to promote the utilization of available digital tools.
  • Community Engagement: Encouraging community participation and involvement in the digital education process.


  • The government’s initiatives to provide free digital tools to marginalized communities are commendable, reflecting a commitment to inclusive education.
  • Addressing challenges and implementing community-focused strategies will enhance the effectiveness of these endeavors, contributing to a more digitally empowered and educated populace.

Child Labour in India: Magnitude, Causes, Impacts and Solutions | UPSC

Facts and Prelims: The Global Climate 2011-2020


  • The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) released a report titled “The Global Climate 2011-2020: A Decade of Acceleration,” highlighting concerning trends in climate change and its far-reaching consequences.

Key Highlights:

Temperature Trends:

  • The decade 2011-2020 marked the warmest on record for both land and ocean.
  • Global mean temperature surpassed the 1850-1900 average, emphasizing the persistent warming trend since the 1990s.
  • Record high temperatures in numerous countries, with 2016 and 2020 being the warmest due to an El Niño event.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

  • Atmospheric concentrations of major greenhouse gases continued to rise, particularly CO2 from fossil fuel combustion.
  • CO2 levels reached 413.2 ppm in 2020, underlining the urgency for sustainable emissions reduction.

Oceanic Changes:

  • Ocean warming rates accelerated significantly, impacting marine ecosystems.
  • Ocean acidification due to CO2 absorption posed challenges for marine organisms.

Marine Heatwaves and Sea Level Rise:

  • Marine Heatwaves increased in frequency and intensity, affecting 60% of the ocean’s surface.
  • Global mean sea level rise accelerated, reaching 4.5mm/yr, primarily due to ocean warming and ice mass loss.

Glacier and Ice Sheet Loss:

  • Glaciers globally thinned, affecting water supplies.
  • Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets lost 38% more ice, contributing significantly to rising sea levels.

Arctic Sea Ice Decline:

  • Arctic sea ice continued its decline, reaching a mean seasonal minimum extent 30% below the 1981-2010 average.

Ozone Hole and Successes:

  • The Antarctic ozone hole diminished, attributed to successful international action under the Montreal Protocol.
  • Efforts led to reduced chlorine entering the stratosphere.

Impact on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs):

  • Extreme weather events hindered progress toward SDGs, impacting food security, human mobility, and socioeconomic development.
  • Improved early warning systems reduced casualties, but economic losses from extreme events escalated.

WMO’s Recommendations:

  • Enhancing collective resilience against global crises.
  • Strengthening science-policy-society interaction.
  • Promoting institutional capacity-building and collaboration.
  • Ensuring policy coherence for climate and development synergies.


  • An intergovernmental organization, WMO has 192 Member States and Territories.
  • Originated from the International Meteorological Organization in 1873.
  • Specialized agency of the United Nations for meteorology, operational hydrology, and related geophysical sciences.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.


  • The report underscores the critical need for urgent, coordinated efforts to mitigate climate change\’s adverse impacts.
  • It emphasizes the importance of global cooperation and proactive measures to address climate-related challenges and protect vulnerable ecosystems and communities.

Fact for Prelims:

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)

  • Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) refer to a cluster of infections prevalent among marginalized communities in the developing regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
  • They stem from various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and parasitic worms.
  • NTDs are particularly widespread in tropical areas lacking access to clean water and safe sanitation. Unlike diseases such as tuberculosis, HIV-AIDS, and malaria, NTDs often receive limited funding for research and treatment.
  • Examples of NTDs encompass snakebite envenomation, scabies, yaws, trachoma, Leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease.

Snakebite Envenoming (SE)

  • Snakebite Envenoming (SE) is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by the injection of venom following a venomous snake bite or, in some cases, by venom sprayed into the eyes as a defense mechanism.
  • This health risk is prominent in rural tropical and subtropical regions across Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Oceania, and Latin America, affecting millions of people reliant on agriculture and subsistence activities.
  • SE can lead to severe complications, including deformities, contractures, amputations, visual impairment, renal issues, and psychological distress, particularly in developing countries.
  • Globally, an estimated 81,410 to 137,880 people succumb to snakebites each year, as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • To address this concern, WHO launched a roadmap in 2019 with the goal of reducing snakebite-related deaths and disabilities by 50% by 2030.
  • The roadmap includes initiatives like increasing the number of competent antivenom manufacturers, establishing a global antivenom stockpile, and integrating snakebite treatment into national health plans.
  • In India, efforts to combat snakebite envenoming began in 2013, well before the WHO roadmap. Researchers from the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) initiated community awareness programs and capacity building within the health system.
  • In 2015, India ratified a National Action Plan aligned with WHO’s strategy and the United Nations’ Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction to address the challenges posed by snakebite envenoming.
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