Daily News Analysis 24th Nov 2023 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for  24th   November 2023: 

GS-2 :Transit Anticipatory Bail ,  International Tropical Timber Council (ITTC), Adoption in India

GS-3:  Impact of Climate Change on Women

Facts for prelims: Nova , G-77


Transit Anticipatory Bail


  • The Supreme Court of India, in the case of Priya Indoria vs State of Karnataka and Ors (2023), recently delivered a significant ruling on the provision of transit anticipatory bail, emphasizing the constitutional imperative of safeguarding citizens\’ right to life and personal liberty as enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution of India.



  • The concept of transit anticipatory bail was introduced by the Supreme Court in 1998 in the case of State of Assam v. Brojen Gogol.
  • The term is not explicitly defined in the Code Of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) or any other legislation.


SC’s Ruling on Transit Anticipatory Bail:

  • The Supreme Court ruled that High Courts and Sessions Courts can grant transit anticipatory bail even when the First Information Report (FIR) is registered outside their jurisdiction.
  • Emphasis on the constitutional duty to protect citizens\’ rights.
  • Transit anticipatory bail can be granted under Section 438 of the Code Of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), 1973, ensuring interim protection.
  • The SC highlighted the potential for unjust consequences if an absolute bar on jurisdiction is imposed, especially for genuine applicants facing wrongful or politically motivated prosecution.


Conditions for Interim Protection:

  • Notice to the investigating officer and public prosecutor is mandatory during the first hearing.
  • The order granting limited relief must explicitly record reasons explaining why the applicant anticipates an inter-state arrest and the potential impact on the ongoing investigation.
  • The applicant must satisfy the court regarding their inability to seek anticipatory bail from the court with territorial jurisdiction over the FIR.
  • Factors include threats to life, personal liberty, concerns about arbitrariness, or medical reasons.
  • Acknowledging the potential for forum shopping, the ruling emphasizes the importance of a territorial connection between the accused and the court\’s jurisdiction to prevent abuse.



  • The Supreme Court\’s ruling establishes guidelines for the application of transit anticipatory bail, balancing the need for interim protection with safeguards to prevent misuse and ensuring justice in cases where FIRs are filed outside the territorial jurisdiction.


International Tropical Timber Council (ITTC)



  • The recently concluded 59th International Tropical Timber Council (ITTC) marked an important moment in the ongoing efforts to promote sustainable tropical forest management and regulate the trade of sustainably produced tropical timber. This governing body operates within the framework of the International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO).


About ITTC:


Purpose and Meetings:

  • The ITTC serves as the governing body of ITTO, convening at least once a year to deliberate on a comprehensive agenda dedicated to advancing sustainable tropical forest practices and fostering the trade of responsibly sourced tropical timber.


  • The 59th session witnessed significant decisions that underscore the commitment of member countries to sustainable forestry practices.


Endorsement of Projects:

  • Member countries collectively endorsed eight projects aligned with sustainable forest management and related objectives.
  • A budget of $7.1 million for the upcoming financial year (2024-25) was approved and adopted during the session.


Trial Measure on Project Submissions:

  • A notable decision involved the approval of a trial measure allowing ineligible members, due to financial arrears, to submit project proposals and concept notes.
  • Eligibility was linked to the payment of arrears, allowing members to submit one project and concept note for every two years of arrears paid.


Key Facts about ITTO:


  • Formed under the International Tropical Timber Agreement 1983 (ITTA 1983), negotiated under the auspices of the UN Conference on Trade and Development.
  • Focuses on promoting sustainable management and conservation of tropical forests, along with expanding and diversifying international trade in tropical timber from sustainably managed and legally harvested forests.
  • Facilitates funding for forestry projects in tropical timber-producing countries.
  • All projects rely on voluntary contributions from governments.
  • Currently boasts 75 member countries, including India.
  • Its members collectively oversee about 80% of the world\’s tropical forests and contribute to 90% of the global tropical timber trade.
  • The organization is headquartered in Yokohama, Japan.



  • The outcomes of the 59th ITTC reflect a commitment to advancing sustainable forestry practices globally. With approved projects, budget allocations, and a trial measure addressing financial arrears, the session has reinforced the significance of collaborative international efforts in tropical forest management and timber trade.


Adoption in India


  • The Supreme Court of India, responding to a petition by a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), has issued directives urging the Centre, States, and Union Territories to streamline and expedite the adoption process in the country. 
  • The Court expressed concern over the low adoption rates and the significant number of children residing in childcare institutions (CCIs) without a permanent family.


Current State of Adoption in India:

  • Low Adoption Rates: The Supreme Court highlighted the concerning disparity between the approximately 4,000 child adoptions annually and the staggering number of over 3 Crore orphans until 2021.
  • Mismatch Between Children and Prospective Parents: There exists a substantial imbalance between children available for adoption and registered Prospective Adoptive Parents (PAPs), with PAPs facing a waiting period of three to four years for a healthy, young child.
  • Age Preferences: CARA\’s data revealed that a significant percentage of registered PAPs opt for children in the age group of zero to two years, creating challenges for the adoption of older children.


Challenges Related to Adoption in India:

  • Lengthy and Complex Process: The adoption process, governed by the Juvenile Justice Act and Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, involves intricate steps, leading to a prolonged timeline.
  • Child Returns: An unusual increase in child returns between 2017-19, particularly affecting girls, those with special needs, and older children, raises concerns about the adjustment process in adoptive families.
  • Limited Adoption of Children with Disabilities: The adoption of children with disabilities remains minimal, accounting for approximately 1% of total adoptions between 2018 and 2019.
  • Child Trafficking Concerns: A diminishing pool of adoptable children has given rise to illegal adoption activities, posing ethical and legal challenges, especially during the pandemic.
  • LGBTQ+ Parenthood Challenges: Legal recognition issues for LGBTQ+ families hinder their adoption prospects, contributing to illegal adoptions within the queer community.
  • Societal Stigma and Lack of Awareness: Social stigma and limited awareness about the adoption process act as barriers for prospective adoptive parents, impacting adoption rates.


Benefits of Adoption for Children and Society:


  • Stable Family Environment: Adoption provides a stable and loving family environment for children deprived of parental care.
  • Holistic Development: It ensures the overall development and well-being of children, addressing their physical, mental, emotional, social, and educational needs.
  • Social and Economic Contribution: Adoption reduces the burden on the state, and society, and empowers children to become productive citizens, contributing to social and economic development.
  • Positive Adoption Culture: Encourages a positive adoption culture by breaking down social stigmas and raising awareness about its benefits.



  • Proactive Identification: Identify children in CCIs with unfit parents or guardians promptly, bringing them into the adoption pool for a chance at a permanent family.
  • Enhanced Preparation for Children: Improve institutional efforts to prepare and counsel children, especially older and disabled ones, for transitioning to new adoptive families.
  • Comprehensive Adjustment Programs: Develop comprehensive programs addressing adjustment challenges, ensuring a smoother integration process.
  • Awareness Campaigns: Conduct awareness campaigns to educate the public about the benefits of adoption, dispelling stigmas and misconceptions.
  • International Collaboration: Collaborate with international bodies to curb child trafficking for adoption and strengthen inter-country adoption regulations.
  • Foster Care Promotion: Develop and promote foster care programs as an alternative to institutionalization, providing a temporary and nurturing environment for children awaiting adoption.



  • Addressing the challenges in the adoption process is crucial for ensuring the well-being of children without parental care and building a positive adoption culture. 
  • The Supreme Court\’s directives, along with collaborative efforts from authorities, NGOs, and society, can pave the way for a more efficient and compassionate adoption system in India. 
  • Promoting awareness, eliminating stigmas, and prioritizing the best interests of the child are essential for fostering a society where every child has the opportunity for a loving and permanent family.


Impact of climate change on Women Involved in agri-food 


  • A recent study, featured in the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, highlights the disproportionate impact of climate change on women involved in agri-food systems globally. 
  • Examining the vulnerability of women in agricultural sectors, the research identifies areas where climate risks are most severe.


Key Highlights of the Study:


  • Global Ranking of Climate Change Threats: The study ranks 87 countries based on the climate change threats faced by women in agri-food systems, with India standing at 12th place. Other Asian nations like Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nepal also face significant risks.
  • High-Risk Regions: Agri-food systems, spanning production, post-harvest handling, and distribution, are particularly vulnerable. Regions such as central, east, and southern Africa, and west and south Asia are identified as high-risk areas, especially for those residing in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).
  • Climate Agriculture Gender Inequality Hotspots: The research integrates insights on climate, gender, and agri-food systems to map regions as \’climate–agriculture–gender inequality hotspots.\’ This mapping can guide gender-responsive climate action and is pertinent to ongoing discussions on climate investments and a loss and damage fund.


Policymaking and Climate Action:


  • Crucial Entry Point for Policymaking: The study provides a vital entry point for policymaking, illustrating the unequal impact of climate hazards on women in agriculture.
  • Food Security Impact: Previous studies reveal that women and girls are more likely to face hunger after climate-related disasters, such as droughts.
  • Targeted Finance and Investments: Hotspot maps offer valuable insights for decision-makers and investors, enabling targeted finance and investments in areas where women are most affected by climate change risks.


How Climate Change Affects Women in Agri-Food Systems:


  • Reduced Food Security and Income: Climate change disrupts agricultural production, affecting crop yields, and quality, and increasing the risk of pests and diseases. This impacts the food security and income of women farmers who heavily depend on agriculture.
  • Increased Workload: Climate change amplifies the demand for water, labour, and natural resources, adding to the workload of women farmers who are often responsible for various household and agricultural tasks.
  • Reduced Health and Well-being: Climate change exposes women farmers to health risks, including heat stress, waterborne diseases, malnutrition, and mental stress. Limited access to healthcare facilities exacerbates their vulnerability.
  • Limited Participation and Empowerment: Climate change hampers the participation and empowerment of women farmers, who face exclusion from decision-making processes and encounter social and cultural norms that restrict their mobility and rights.


Government Initiatives:

  • Rashtriya Mahila Kisan Diwas: Celebrated annually on October 15th in India to acknowledge the crucial contribution of women farmers in the agricultural sector.
  • National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA): Aims to promote sustainable agriculture practices.
  • Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana: Focuses on organic farming.
  • Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP): Empowers women in agriculture.
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA): Provides rural employment.


Way Forward:

  • Enhance Access and Control: Improve women\’s access to and control over resources, services, and opportunities.
  • Promote Involvement and Leadership: Encourage women\’s involvement and leadership in decision-making and governance structures.
  • Strengthen Knowledge and Skills: Enhance women\’s knowledge and skills in climate-smart agriculture, disaster risk reduction, and climate information.
  • Support Empowerment and Agency: Address underlying causes of gender inequality through measures targeting social and cultural norms, legal barriers, and gender-based violence.
  • Recognizing the differential impact of climate change on women in agri-food systems is pivotal for informed policymaking. 

Facts for prelims: 


  • Nova refers to a category of exploding stars characterized by a temporary increase in luminosity, ranging from several thousand to up to 100,000 times their normal brightness.
  • The surge in brightness occurs rapidly, reaching maximum luminosity within hours of the outburst, and may last for several days or occasionally a few weeks before gradually returning to normal levels.


Observations of a Recent Nova:

  • Astronomers have recently conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of a newly discovered nova, identified as AT 2023prq.
  • Stars undergoing a nova event are typically too faint to be seen before the eruption.
  • The sudden increase in luminosity can, however, make them visible in the nighttime sky.
  • The term \”nova\” is derived from the Latin word for \”new,\” reflecting the appearance of these objects to observers.


Importance of Studying Novae:

  • Studying novae is crucial for advancing knowledge about fundamental astrophysical processes, particularly in the context of stellar evolution.
  • Novas commonly originate from white dwarf stars in binary star systems. Binary stars are closely orbiting pairs.
  • The white dwarf, the remnant of a star that lost its outer layers, is often paired with a red giant.
  • Gravitational forces cause the white dwarf to pull fuel and matter, especially hydrogen, from its companion.
  • This material is quickly hurled towards the white dwarf\’s surface, forming layers. As these layers accumulate, the material heats up.
  • When the layers become sufficiently compressed and hot, thermonuclear reactions occur.
  • The hydrogen material reacts with helium, leading to an explosion that causes the white dwarf to become bright as it ejects material.


  • Formed on June 15, 1964, by seventy-seven developing nations following the \”Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Developing Countries\” after the first UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in Geneva.

Institutional Development:

  • Evolved a permanent institutional structure starting with the \”Ministerial Meeting of the Group of 77 in Algiers\” in October 1967.
  • Adoption of the Charter of Algiers during the Algiers meeting.
  • Created Chapters with Liaison offices in Geneva (UNCTAD), Nairobi (UNEP), Paris (UNESCO), Rome (FAO/IFAD), Vienna (UNIDO), and the Group of 24 (G-24) in Washington, D.C. (IMF and World Bank).
  • Originally comprised 77 signatory countries, but despite the increase to 134 members, the name \”Group of 77\” was retained for historical significance.


  • Largest intergovernmental organization of developing nations in the UN.
  • Facilitates the articulation and promotion of collective economic interests of Southern countries.
  • Strengthens joint negotiating capacity on major international economic issues within the UN system.
  • Promotes South-South cooperation for development.
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