Daily News Analysis 3rd April 2023



Relevance in UPSC:

GS Paper 3: Environment

Important For

Prelims: About Bandipur Tiger Reserve

Mains: Conservation Efforts


Why in News?

Bandipur completed 50 years as a Project Tiger Reserve.


Key Highlights

  • There were 12 tigers in Bandipur when Project Tiger was launched
  • The number of tigers utilising the park is 173 while the number of tigers within the reserve has been pegged at 126 as per the Status of Tigers Co-predators and Prey in India, 2018, published by the National Tiger Conservation Authority,
  • In 1941, the Venugopal Wildlife Park was constituted extending over 800 sq km of which 82 sq miles was known as Bandipur Sanctuary within the park.


About Bandipur Tiger Reserve

  • It was created in 1973 as part of \”Project Tiger\”.
  • In 1985 it was enlarged and named Bandipur National Park including the adjoining area of ​​Venugopala Safari Park.
  • It is located in two adjacent districts of Karnataka (Mysore and Chamarajanagarh), on the border of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
  • It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
  • It is located in one of the most biodiverse regions of the country.
  • It is surrounded by Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (Tamil Nadu) to the south, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala) to the southwest and Kabini Reservoir separating Bandipur and Nagarahole Tiger Reserves to the northwest.
  • It is rich in floral and faunal diversity and is recognized as one of the largest biodiversity areas in the country.
  • Bandipur along with Nagarahole, Mudumalai, Sathyamangalam and Wayanad form the largest population of wild tigers in the world.
  • This land is also home to the largest population of Asian elephants in the world and is part of the Mysore Elephant Reserve (MER).
  • The park is located between the Cabinier River to the north and the Moyal River to the south.
  • The Nugu River runs through the park. The highest point of the park is on a hill called Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta.


About Project tiger

  • A Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Ministry of Environment, and Climate Change, the Forests launched in 1973.
  • Initially launched in 9 Tiger reserves (TRs) in different states of India.
  • Provide central assistance to tiger range countries for in situ tiger conservation in designated tiger reserves.
  • Implementing Agency: Statutory body National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), established under the Wildlife Conservation Amendment Act 2006.
  • Overall oversight/coordination of role and approval of tiger conservation plans developed by state governments.
  • Funding Model: The Center provides 60% and 50% of financial assistance to the States for all non-recurring expenses and recurring expenses, respectively.
  • In both cases, the North Eastern and Himalayan states received 90% of central aid.







GS Paper 3: Environment

Important For

Prelims: Fernarium , Eravikulam National Park (ENP),

Mains: Conservation Efforts


Why in News?

Eravikulam National Park (ENP), the natural habitat of Nilgiri tahr in Munnar, has a new attraction a Fernarium set up inside the park. According to officials, this is the first time such a fern collection has been established in the hill station.

Key highlights

  • 52 varieties of ferns have already been planted in the new Fernarium.
  • As per data, ENP has 104 varieties of ferns

About Fern

  • Ferns are part of the Epiphytic family.
  • They grow naturally in a soilless condition.
  • The plants obtain water and nutrients through leaching from trees.
  • A large number of ferns are on the trees inside the park


 About Eravikulam National Park (ENP)

  • It is located in the High Range (Kannan Devan Hills) in the southern part of Western Ghats at Devikulam Taluk, Idukki district, Kerala state.
  • It spans an area of ​​97 square kilometers and has the highest peak in South India, Anamudi (2695 m) in its southern region.
  • The Rajamalai area of ​​Park remains open for public tours.


  • The main body of the park is a plateau with ups and downs (plateaus of different heights or different altitudes), and the base altitude is about 2,000 meters above mean sea level.
  • Three main types of flora found in Park are: Grassland, Scrub, and Shola Forest (a mosaic of evergreen forest and montane grassland).
  • The park is the largest and least disturbed area of ​​unique Shola-Grassveld montane vegetation in the Western Ghats.


  • It special Neelakurinji flowers (Strobilanthes kunthianam) which bloom every 12 years and the next bloom is expected in 2030.
  • In addition, there are rare terrestrial and epiphytic orchids, wild balsam, etc.
  • Epiphytes are organisms that grow on the surface of plants and get their moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water, or debris that accumulates around them.


  • The park has the largest viable population of the endangered Nilgiri Tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius).
  • It is also home to other lesser known fauna such as the Nilgiri marten, red mongoose, small-clawed otter, dark-striped squirrel, etc.




Gamma-ray burst 



GS Paper 3: Science and Technology

Important For

Prelims: About Gamma-ray burst

Mains: Effects of scientific developments in everyday life



Why in News?

A gamma-ray burst that recently hit our solar system was so bright, it temporarily blinded gamma-ray instruments in space, according to a NASA release.


About gamma-ray burst

  • GRBs are brief bursts of gamma rays, the most energetic form of light.
  • GRB emits more energy in seconds than our Sun emits in its lifetime, and has two distinct emission phases:
  • Short Immediate Emission (initial burst phase of gamma ray emission), followed by a long duration multiple emission wavelength afterglow phase.
  • The shortest GRBs of likely mark the collision of two dense stellar remnants called neutron stars, while the longest bursts occur when a rapidly rotating massive star collapses to form a black hole.
  • When a GRB explodes, it is the brightest source of cosmic gamma photons in the observable universe.

What are gamma rays? 

  • Gamma rays have the shortest wavelength and highest energy in the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • They are produced by the hottest and most energetic objects in the universe, such as neutron stars and pulsars, supernova explosions, and the region around black holes.
  • On Earth, gamma waves are produced by nuclear explosions, lightning, and less violent radioactive decay activity.



Scroll to Top