Daily News Analysis 27 July 2023 (The Hindu)

Welcome to TARUN IAS – Your Daily News Analysis for UPSC/IAS Exam Preparation!

Stay informed with relevant current affairs from trusted sources like The Hindu, Indian Express, PIB, and more. Our daily news analysis includes Prelims Facts and Important Editorials presented in a concise and bulletised format. Get free daily updates at 12 noon (except Sundays). Don\’t miss the Daily Revision Quiz to reinforce your knowledge. Good luck!

Here are the topics covered for 27 July 2023: The changing contours of Delhi: Economic Geography for Equitable & Sustainable Growth, No-Confidence Motion Against Union Government over Manipur Violence, Supreme Court to Hear Application for ED Director\’s Tenure Extension, India\’s Digital Birth Certificates – Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD) Amendment Bill, 2023, Bill for Nomination of Members from \”Kashmiri Migrants\” and \”Pakistan-occupied Kashmir\”, Manual Scavenging Status in Indian States, Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation\’s (EPFO) IT Challenges, SCO is a success story that can get better- writes Chinese Ambassador to India, UNESCO Report on Digital Technology in Education.

Table of Contents

GS Paper 1:                         

  1. The changing contours of Delhi: Economic Geography for Equitable & Sustainable Growth


GS Paper 2:

  1. No-Confidence Motion Against Union Government over Manipur Violence
  2. Supreme Court to Hear Application for ED Director\’s Tenure Extension
  3. India\’s Digital Birth Certificates – Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD) Amendment Bill, 2023
  4. Bill for Nomination of Members from \”Kashmiri Migrants\” and \”Pakistan-occupied Kashmir\”
  5. Manual Scavenging Status in Indian States
  6. Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation\’s (EPFO) IT Challenges
  7. SCO is a success story that can get better- writes Chinese Ambassador to India


GS Paper 3:

  1. UNESCO Report on Digital Technology in Education

The changing contours of Delhi: Economic Geography for Equitable & Sustainable Growth

The article discusses the economic development and challenges in Delhi, the capital city of India. Delhi is becoming one of the most populated urban areas in the world, and as India\’s population grows, it faces important decisions about its economic growth and sustainability. The article emphasizes the need for proper planning that benefits everyone, especially marginalized groups, and ensures sustainable development.

  1. India\’s significance in economic development and planetary challenges increased as the world\’s most populous country.
  2. Delhi-NCR heading to become the world\’s most populous urban agglomeration.


Layout of Delhi-NCR:

  1. Mega city-region with core and peripheral cities.
  2. Peripheral cities face infrastructure challenges.


Economic Geography of Delhi-NCR:

  1. High job concentration & significant GDP but issues with rising costs, inequality, and pollution.
  2. Decentralized core, informal work, low women\’s workforce participation.


Lessons for the Global South:

  1. Economic geography approach for better policies, development, and multi-stakeholder platforms.
  2. Guide investments, empower marginalized groups, and improve access to education & healthcare.
  3. Applicable to mega city-regions globally for inclusive, sustainable growth and valuing planetary resources.

No-Confidence Motion Against Union Government over Manipur Violence


  1. Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla accepts no-confidence motion by the Opposition.
  2. Opposition seeks answers from the Prime Minister on restoring peace in Manipur.
  3. INDIA bloc\’s 26 parties\’ leaders meet to gather support for the motion.


What is a No-Confidence Motion?

No-Confidence Motion:

    1. Used to test the majority support of the ruling government.
    2. Moves to express lack of confidence in government\’s policies.
    3. If passed, government must resign or call for early elections.


Other Types of Motions passed in Parliament:

  • Confidence Motion:
    1. Moved by ruling government to seek support for its policies.
    2. If passed, it reinforces government\’s legitimacy.
  • Adjournment Motion:
    1. For urgent public matters requiring immediate attention.
    2. Suspends ongoing business for discussion.
  • Censure Motion:
    1. Disapproval of government\’s actions or policies.
    2. Less severe, no government removal.
  • Calling Attention Motion:
    1. Raises issues of public importance.
    2. Seeks response from government.
  • Privilege Motion:
    1. Protects MP privileges and immunities.
    2. Preserves Parliament\’s dignity.
  • Substantive Motion:
    1. Proposes specific actions or opinions.
    2. Brings resolutions before Parliament.
  • Token Cut Motion:
    1. Budgetary motion to reduce demand for grant.
    2. Symbolic, doesn\’t aim to defeat government.

These are the main types of motions in the Indian Parliament, serving different purposes and ensuring effective governance and accountability.

Supreme Court to Hear Application for ED Director\’s Tenure Extension


  1. Supreme Court to hear urgent application by Centre on July 27.
  2. Enforcement Directorate (ED) Director Sanjay Kumar Mishra seeks extension till October 15.
  3. Previous judgment deemed his third consecutive extension illegal.
  4. Centre cites FATF evaluation as reason for extension.
  5. Crucial for anti-money laundering investigations.
  6. Protection of India\’s national interests emphasized.
  7. Supreme Court upheld amendments allowing three annual extensions for CBI and ED chiefs.

All about Enforcement Directorate (ED)

\"All \"All
  1. The Enforcement Directorate (ED) is an economic intelligence and law enforcement agency in India.
  2. It operates under the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, and is responsible for enforcing economic laws and regulating economic activities.
  3. The primary focus of ED is to combat money laundering and foreign exchange violations.
  4. It investigates and enforces provisions under the Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), and other related laws.
  5. ED\’s role is to prevent and control financial crimes and illicit financial activities that threaten the nation\’s economic stability and security.
  6. It works in coordination with other agencies like CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation) and FATF (Financial Action Task Force) to combat economic offenses and ensure financial integrity.
  7. ED has the authority to attach and confiscate assets acquired through illegal means and proceeds of money laundering.

The agency plays a significant role in investigating high-profile cases related to financial fraud, corruption, and black money.

India\’s Digital Birth Certificates – Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD) Amendment Bill, 2023

  1. Digital Birth Certificates: The RBD Amendment Bill aims to create all-encompassing digital birth certificates for various official purposes.
  2. Centralised Register: States will be required to register births and deaths on the Centre\’s Civil Registration System (CRS) portal and share the data with the Registrar General of India.
  3. Efficient and Transparent Services: Centralised registration will lead to efficient delivery of public services and social benefits.
  4. Data Integration: The database will also update the National Population Register (NPR), ration cards, and property registration records.
  5. Applicable to Newborns: The rules will apply to all those born after the Bill becomes law.
  6. Aadhaar Integration: Aadhaar numbers of parents and informants will be collected during birth registration.
  7. Facilitation for Special Cases: The Bill will facilitate registration for adopted, orphan, abandoned, surrendered, surrogate, and single-parent children.
  8. Cause of Death Certificate: All medical institutions will be mandated to provide a certificate on the cause of death to the Registrar and the nearest relative.
  9. First Amendment in 54 Years: The Bill amends 14 sections of the Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969, making it the first amendment in 54 years.

Bill for Nomination of Members from \”Kashmiri Migrants\” and \”Pakistan-occupied Kashmir\”

  1. The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation (Amendment) Bill, 2023 tabled in Lok Sabha aims to nominate members from specific communities.
  2. Two members from \”Kashmiri Migrants\” community, including one woman, will be nominated to the Legislative Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir.
  3. One member from \”Pakistan-occupied Kashmir,\” displaced during wars with Pakistan, will also be nominated.
  4. The Bill seeks to preserve their political rights and promote social and economic development.
  5. The Delimitation Commission recommended representation by way of nomination in response to representations from the communities.

Manual Scavenging Status in Indian States


  1. Recent revelations by the Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment highlight that 530 out of 766 districts have declared themselves manual-scavenging free.


More in News:

  1. Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, and Jharkhand have high number of districts yet to declare themselves free of manual scavenging.
  2. India reported no deaths due to manual scavenging in the past five years.
  3. 330 deaths occurred during cleaning of sewers and septic tanks.
  4. States like Bihar, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu have 100% districts declared free, while in some areas, 15% to 20% districts still report manual scavenging.
  5. Uttar Pradesh had the highest number of manual scavengers in surveys conducted till 2018, but now has nearly 90% districts free of manual scavenging.
  6. The government focuses on addressing hazardous cleaning of sewers and septic tanks through the NAMASTE scheme.
  7. Over 90% of manual scavengers identified in surveys till 2018 were from the Scheduled Caste communities.


What is Manual Scavenging?

  1. Manual scavenging involves the manual cleaning of human excreta from sewers and latrines.


Constitutional Provisions and Laws Against Manual Scavenging:

  1. The Indian Constitution provides rights of equality, respect, and dignity through various articles such as 14, 15, 16, 17, 19(1)(g), and 21.
  2. Laws like the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955, Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993, and Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 aim to abolish manual scavenging.


Reasons for Prevalence:

  1. Social deprivation and caste-based discrimination.
  2. Poor enforcement of existing laws.
  3. Exploitation of unskilled laborers.
  4. Lack of empathy and awareness.
  5. Inadequate rehabilitation and limited alternative opportunities.


Impacts of Manual Scavenging:

  • Health Hazards:
    1. Direct exposure to human waste and hazardous substances.
    2. High risk of diseases like cholera, typhoid, hepatitis, and respiratory infections.
    3. Lack of protective gear and poor sanitation conditions lead to illnesses and premature deaths.
  • Dignity and Human Rights Violations:
    1. Violation of dignity and human rights.
    2. Degrading and inhumane conditions, handling waste with bare hands, and lack of basic sanitation facilities.
    3. Social stigma and discrimination perpetuate caste-based oppression.
  • Psychological and Emotional Trauma:
    1. Severe psychological
    2. Constant exposure to filth, indignity of the work, and discrimination lead to mental well-being issues.
    3. Shame, low self-esteem, and depression cause long-term psychological trauma.


Government Initiatives and Supreme Court Directions to Curb Manual Scavenging:

  • Rehabilitation Efforts:
    1. One-time cash payout of ₹40,000 to 58,000 identified manual scavengers.
    2. Around 22,000 manual scavengers connected to skills training programs.
    3. Subsidies and loans to support entrepreneurship and eliminate manual scavenging deaths.
    4. Merger with NAMASTE scheme for sewer mechanization.
  • Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation (Amendment) Bill, 2020:
    1. Aims to mechanize sewer cleaning and provide protection and compensation in case of deaths.
    2. Awaiting cabinet approval as an amendment to the 2013 Act.
  • Building and Maintenance of Insanitary Latrines Act of 2013:
    1. Outlaws construction and maintenance of unsanitary toilets and hiring manual scavengers.
    2. Provides alternative jobs and assistance for affected communities.
  • Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes (Prevention Of Atrocities) Act, 1989:
    1. Integrated protection for sanitation workers to free them from designated traditional occupations.
  • Safaimitra Suraksha Challenge:
    1. Launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs to mechanize sewer cleaning.
    2. Ensures proper gear and oxygen tanks for emergencies.
  • Swachhta Abhiyan App:
    1. Geotags insanitary latrines and manual scavengers for replacement and rehabilitation.
  • National Action Plan for Mechanised Sanitation Ecosystem (NAMASTE):
    1. Aims to eradicate unsafe sewer and septic tank cleaning practices.
  • SC Judgment (2014):
    1. Compulsory identification and ₹10 lakh compensation to families of deceased sewage workers.
    2. Cash assistance, houses, and livelihood training for manual scavengers.
    3. Concessional loans for financial support and alternative occupations.
    4. ₹10 lakh compensation in case of sewer deaths.
  1. Rashtriya Garima Abhiyan
  2. National Commission for Safai Karamchari


Recommendations to End Manual Scavenging:

  1. Focus on education and skill development for affected individuals.
  2. Create social awareness and appreciation for sanitation workers.
  3. Prioritize rehabilitation and provide better employment opportunities.
  4. Strengthen law enforcement and implementation.
  5. Embrace technology like sewer cleaning robots as alternatives.



  1. Manual scavenging is a grave issue affecting the dignity and rights of sanitation workers.
  2. The fight against manual scavenging requires collective efforts, empathy, and policy interventions to bring about a more inclusive and just society.

UNESCO Report on Digital Technology in Education:

Uncritical Adoption of Digital Products:

  1. Caution against embracing digital products without robust evidence of added value.
  2. Pearson\’s funding of studies to challenge independent analysis on product impact highlighted.


Negative Impact of Excessive Screen Time:

  1. Link between excessive screen time and reduced educational performance and emotional stability.
  2. Proximity to mobile devices found to distract students in 14 countries.
  3. Endorsement of banning smartphones in schools if they hinder learning or worsen well-being.
  4. Banning mobile phones improves academic performance, especially for low-performing students.


Cost and Access Challenges:

  1. Higher costs of digital infrastructure exacerbate unequal access in low-income countries.
  2. Technology often purchased without considering long-term budget implications.


Children\’s Data Privacy Concerns:

  1. Children\’s data exposure in digital education settings.
  2. Only 16% of countries explicitly guarantee data privacy in education by law.
  3. 89% of education technology products recommended during the pandemic could survey children.
  4. 39 out of 42 governments providing online education during the pandemic risked or infringed on children\’s rights.


Urgent Need for Child Data Protection Laws:

  1. Governments urged to prioritize learners\’ well-being in digital education decisions.
  2. Call for child data protection laws and tailored accountability mechanisms.

Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation\’s (EPFO) IT Challenges:

  1. EPFO officers criticize the government\’s inaction on fixing outdated and \”collapsing\” software systems.
  2. Urgent need to finalize replacements for old servers expiring by January 2024.
  3. EPFO maintains over 25 crore employees\’ PF accounts with ₹21 lakh crore corpus.
  4. EPFO faces budget constraints with minimal allocation for software development and IT policies.
  5. Board of Trustees aware of IT challenges but little progress on implementing recommendations.
  6. EPFO flooded with complaints about slow software causing claims pendency and increased workload.


About EPFO:

  1. The Employees\’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO) is a non-constitutional government body under the Ministry of Labour and Employment.
  2. It promotes retirement savings and manages provident funds, pensions, and insurance schemes since 1951.
  3. EPFO administers mandatory provident fund, basic pension, and disability/death insurance schemes.
  4. It handles social security agreements for international workers in countries with bilateral agreements.


CBT – Central Board of Trustees:

  1. CBT is EPFO\’s top decision-making body, chaired by the Union Labour Minister of India.
  2. It is a statutory body established by the Employees\’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions (EPF&MP) Act, 1952.
  3. It oversees provident fund, pension, and insurance schemes for organized sector workers.
  4. Presently, three schemes (EPF, EPS, and EDLIS) are in operation under the Act:
    1. Employees\’ Provident Fund Scheme, 1952
    2. Employees\’ Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme, 1976
    3. Employees\’ Pension Scheme, 1995 (replacing the Employees\’ Family Pension Scheme, 1971).


Universal Account Number (UAN):

  1. UAN is a 12-digit number for online access to EPF accounts.
  2. It allows withdrawal, balance checking, and remains the same for employees changing jobs.
  3. Employees must activate their UAN for online services.


PF Contribution:

  1. Both employees and employers contribute 12% of the salary towards EPF.
  2. The employer\’s contribution is divided into EPF, EPS, and EDLIS categories.


EPF Benefits:

  1. EPF helps save money for the long run and emergencies.
  2. Monthly deductions facilitate gradual savings over time.
  3. It provides financial security during retirement, ensuring a good lifestyle.

SCO is a success story that can get better- writes Chinese Ambassador to India

India hosted the 23rd SCO Summit, with leaders signing the New Delhi Declaration, discussing countering radicalisation and digital cooperation. Iran became a full member, and Belarus signed the memorandum to join the SCO. An economic development strategy until 2030 was adopted.


Challenges: Geopolitical tensions, economic slowdown, energy crises, food shortage, and climate change are global concerns. The SCO aims to address them through unity, cooperation, and shared development.


Security Cooperation: The SCO member-states must enhance solidarity and trust for common security, cooperating against terrorism, extremism, and organized crime, and resolving international hot-spot issues politically.


Win-Win Cooperation: Protectionism and unilateral sanctions undermine global well-being. The SCO emphasizes collaboration in trade, investment, technology, climate action, infrastructure, and people-to-people engagement for shared prosperity.


Advocating Multilateralism: Engaging with observer states, dialogue partners, and international organizations like the UN, the SCO upholds the international order, peace, development, and international governance.


China\’s Commitment: China works with India, South Africa, and other partners to contribute to world peace, security, and prosperity, advocating for comprehensive and sustainable security, dialogue, and diplomacy to address international disputes peacefully.


Global Development Partnership: The SCO forges an inclusive global development partnership, promoting common values, rejecting hegemony, unilateralism, and sanctions.


Lead by Example: Safeguarding the development rights and interests of the developing world, the SCO strives for fair global governance, rejecting illegal sanctions and long-arm jurisdiction measures.

Scroll to Top