Daily News Analysis 24 June 2023

Table of Contents


  1. Strike a fine balance, have a just civil code

Facts for Prelims

  1. Jeera (Cumin) cultivation
  2. Global Liveability Index 2023
  3. Nehru-Liaquat Pact

Strike a fine balance, have a just civil code


The Law Commission of India has decided to seek public views and proposals on the Uniform Civil Code (UCC). This decision has reignited the debate on one of India\’s most contested issues. This article aims to highlight a crucial consideration for the Commission as it undertakes this exercise.

Autonomy versus authority:

  1. The question of personal laws involves the clash between personal and religious autonomy and the state\’s authority to reform familial relations.
  2. Some argue that each religious group should seek reforms within their own community, leading to voluntary adoption of the UCC.

Regional differences:

  1. Different regions in India have distinct laws, such as the abolition of the Hindu Joint Family in Kerala.
  2. Muslim marriages and divorces are registered under specific laws in various states.
  3. Kashmiri Muslims have specific provisions for adoption.

Personal laws for different religious groups:

  1. Presently, not only Muslims but also Hindus, Jains, Buddhists, Sikhs, Parsis, and Jews are governed by their own personal laws.
  2. Personal laws are determined based on an individual\’s religious identity.

Contradictions in personal laws:

  1. Contradictions exist within personal laws, such as Hindus marrying under the Special Marriage Act still being governed by Hindu Personal Law.
  2. A person who renounces Hinduism continues to be governed by Hindu Personal Law.

India\’s multiculturalism and cultural accommodation:

  1. The Indian Constitution upholds cultural autonomy and accommodates diverse cultures.
  2. However, certain practices like polygamy and arbitrary unilateral divorce may not align with cultural norms.

Unity over uniformity:

  1. The proposed UCC should reflect India\’s mosaic model of multiculturalism.
  2. Maintaining diversity and unity is crucial, and homogenizing identities should be avoided.
  3. The British undermined diversity within Hindu and Muslim communities.

Constitutional approaches to cultural accommodation:

  1. The Indian Constitution offers integrationist and restricted multicultural approaches to accommodate differences.
  2. State assistance to minority cultures is sometimes seen as \’appeasement\’ without strong constitutional support.
  3. A just code prioritizes equality and justice over uniformity.

Challenges ahead:

  1. Overhauling socio-religious-cultural practices will face obstacles.
  2. The Commission must strike a balance, eliminating practices that contradict constitutional benchmarks.


The Law Commission\’s decision to seek public opinions on the UCC has sparked discussions on personal laws and cultural autonomy. It is essential to find a balance that respects diversity while ensuring equality and justice. The path ahead will require addressing hurdles and considering the constitutional framework of India\’s multicultural society.

Jeera (Cumin) cultivation


Recently, there has been an unprecedented rise in the prices of Cumin, commonly known as jeera, in India.


Jeera, also known as cumin, is a flavorful seed used in Indian cuisine. Its history dates back to Ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome.

Uses and Benefits:

  1. Adds a strong flavor to Indian dishes.
  2. Its oil has antibacterial properties.
  3. Used in veterinary medicines and various industries.

Climatic Conditions:

  1. Thrives in tropical and sub-tropical climates.
  2. Grows well in different types of soil, with well-drained sandy loam being ideal.
  3. Requires a moderately cool and dry climate, without high humidity.
  4. Cultivated mainly in Gujarat and Rajasthan as a Rabi crop.

Cultivation Process:

  1. Sowing takes place from October to November.
  2. Harvesting is done in February and March.
  3. Jeera is highly influenced by weather conditions.

Major Producers:

  1. India is the largest producer, contributing around 70% of the world\’s production.
  2. Other significant producers include Syria, Turkey, UAE, and Iran.

Global Liveability Index 2023


Recently, the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) unveiled its highly anticipated Global Liveability Index 2023.

About Global Liveability Index 2023:

The Global Liveability Index 2023 measures the challenges people face in their daily lives in 173 cities worldwide. It considers factors like healthcare, culture, environment, education, and stability to assess the quality of life.

Key Metrics:

  1. The index evaluates cities based on five metrics: healthcare, culture, environment, education, and stability.
  2. These metrics help determine which cities offer a high quality of life.

Key Highlights:

  1. Top Liveable Cities: Vienna (Austria), Copenhagen (Denmark), Melbourne and Sydney (Australia) are among the top cities to live in.
  2. Least Liveable Cities: Algiers (Algeria), Tripoli (Libya), and Damascus (Syria) are ranked as the least liveable cities.
  3. Osaka, Japan, was ranked 10th among Asian cities in the index.
  4. The index reached a 15-year high last year as the world recovered from the pandemic.
  5. The average index score is now 76.2 out of 100, up from 73.2 the previous year.
  6. Despite overall growth in the index score, stability showed a slight decline.
  7. Western European cities have slipped in rankings due to increased worker strikes, while cities in Asia and the Middle East made progress.
  8. Cities facing civil unrest, military conflicts, and other issues remained at the bottom of the list.

Nehru-Liaquat Pact

Why in News?

  1. The death of Syama Prasad Mookerjee, founder of the Bharatiya Jan Sangh, is in the news.
  2. Mookerjee was a part of Nehru\’s Union Cabinet, despite their differences.

Nehru-Liaquat Pact

  1. The Nehru-Liaquat Pact, also known as the Delhi Pact, was a bilateral agreement between India and Pakistan.
  2. It aimed to address the treatment of minorities in both countries.
  3. The pact was signed by Jawaharlal Nehru and Liaquat Ali Khan on April 8, 1950.

Reasons for the Pact

  1. The partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947 resulted in communal tensions and violence.
  2. The Nehru-Liaquat Pact was signed to address the concerns of minorities in both countries.
  3. It aimed to protect their rights, ensure equality, and promote a sense of security.

Key Provisions of the Pact

  1. Security: Measures to protect the life, property, and honor of minorities.
  2. Equality: Equal rights and opportunities for all citizens, regardless of religion or ethnicity.
  3. Non-Discrimination: Elimination of discrimination based on religion, race, caste, or creed.
  4. Repatriation of Minorities: Provision for the return of migrated minority individuals.
  5. Cultural and Educational Rights: Preservation of minority language, script, and religious institutions.

Criticism of the Pact

  1. Ineffectiveness: Incidents of communal violence and discrimination continued.
  2. Lack of Implementation: Provisions of the pact were not adequately implemented.
  3. Limited Scope: Focus on religious minorities, neglecting linguistic and ethnic minorities.
  4. Lack of Consultation: Signed without extensive consultation with affected communities.
  5. Insufficient Safeguards: Lack of monitoring and enforcement mechanisms.
  6. Political Motives: Seen as a move to improve international image rather than substantial change.

SP Mukherjee\’s Issue with the Pact

  1. Mookerjee initially advocated for a united India but shifted focus towards a divided Bengal.
  2. He opposed the Nehru-Liaquat Pact, feeling it betrayed the logical outcome of Partition.
  3. Mookerjee believed it left Hindus in East Bengal vulnerable and advocated for population and property exchange.
  4. He favored settlement of Hindu minorities in India and Muslim minorities in East Bengal.
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