Daily News Analysis 15 September 2023 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for 15 September 2023: Megalithic Site, Ujjwala Scheme, United Nations Cybercrime Treaty, Cochlear implants, Vagus Nerve Connection to COVID-19, Operation Polo, Hindi Diwas.


Table of Content


  1. Megalithic Site



  1. Ujjwala Scheme



  1. United Nations Cybercrime Treaty
  2. Cochlear implants
  3. Vagus Nerve Connection to COVID-19


Facts for Prelims

  1. Operation Polo
  2. Hindi Diwas


Megalithic Site


  1. The discovery of distinctive terracotta figurines at the megalithic dolmen site in Moodbidri, Dakshina Kannada, is a noteworthy archaeological breakthrough. Historian T. Murugeshi, a participant in the excavations, suggests that these figurines can be traced back to the period between 800-700 B.C.


Megalithic Dolmen Site

  1. Unique terracotta figurines discovered at the megalithic dolmen site near Moodbidri, Dakshina Kannada.
  2. These figurines are estimated to date back to 800-700 B.C.
  3. The discovery includes eight figurines, such as cow bovines, a mother goddess, peacocks, a horse, and more.
  4. Valuable insights into the culture and beliefs of the ancient people from the region can be gleaned from these figurines.
  5. Historian Murugeshi was involved in the explorations, and the site was initially discovered by Pundikai Ganapayya Bhat in the 1980s.
  6. The Mudu Konaje site is described as the largest megalithic dolmen site in the area, featuring nine dolmens on a stone hill slope.
  7. Unfortunately, only two dolmens remain intact today, while the others have been damaged over time.


Megalithic Culture

  1. The presence of megalithic dolmens at the site reflects the megalithic culture known for unique burial practices and the use of iron in ancient India.
  2. Dolmens are constructed using large stone slabs (orthostats) arranged in a clockwise order to create square rooms.
  3. These chambers are sealed with a massive stone slab as a capstone, often featuring a round or U-shaped entrance on the Eastern slab.


Ujjwala Scheme


  1. The Indian government will extend the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY) scheme for three more years, from 2023-24 to 2025-26, aiming to provide LPG connections to an additional 75 lakh households, increasing the total beneficiaries to 10.35 crore households.

About the Yojana

  1. Launched in May 2016 by the Government of India
  2. Objective: Provide clean cooking fuel (LPG) to women from below the poverty line (BPL) and rural households.
  3. Aims to improve women\’s health by replacing traditional and unhealthy cooking methods
  4. Focuses on enhancing overall well-being and reducing indoor air pollution
  5. Significant government initiative to promote clean energy access
  6. Extension of the scheme for three more years to cover additional 75 lakh households


United Nations Cybercrime Treaty


  1. India has proposed that the transfer of \”Personal Data\” under the United Nations Cybercrime Treaty should align with the country\’s domestic laws rather than other applicable international laws.


About the Treaty

  1. The United Nations is currently negotiating a Cybercrime Convention with far-reaching implications for international criminal law.
  2. This convention could expand cross-border police surveillance powers, raising concerns about potential human rights infringements.
  3. The convention\’s development is overseen by the Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Committee, established through UN General Assembly Resolution 74/247 in December 2019.
  4. Key areas covered by the convention include substantive cybercrime provisions, international cooperation, cross-border access to digital evidence by law enforcement, and human rights and procedural safeguards.
  5. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is serving as the Secretariat for the Ad Hoc Committee.


Cochlear implants




  1. Cochlear implants help deafened individuals living in a world of silence enter the world of sound. Technology has integrated people with hearing loss into normal society and improves vastly their quality of life


What is a cochlear implant?

  1. A cochlear implant is a sophisticated device for severe hearing loss. It has two main parts:
    1. External Portion: Worn outside the ear, it captures sounds with a microphone.
    2. Internal Portion: Surgically implanted under the skin, it includes a receiver and electrodes placed in the cochlea, the inner ear.
  2. These parts work together to send sound signals to the auditory nerve, enabling people with hearing loss to hear sound and speech, greatly improving their quality of life.


How does a cochlear implant work?

  1. Cochlear implant vs. hearing aid: Cochlear implants stimulate the auditory nerve while hearing aids amplify sounds for damaged ears.
  2. Direct stimulation: Cochlear implants bypass damaged ear parts to send signals directly to the auditory nerve.
  3. Brain interpretation: The brain recognizes these signals as sound.
  4. Adaptation required: Cochlear implant hearing is different from normal hearing and takes time to learn or relearn.
  5. Benefits: Cochlear implants allow individuals to perceive warning signals, understand environmental sounds, and recognize speech in person or over the phone.


Vagus Nerve Connection to COVID-19


  1. Recent research has indicated a link between vagus nerve dysfunction and long COVID.


About Vagus Nerve

  1. Vagus nerves are a pair of nerves on each side of the body.
  2. They extend from the brainstem through the neck, chest, and stomach.
  3. Part of the parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for calming and resting the body.
  4. Key roles in regulating heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and the immune system.


Connection with COVID-19

  1. The study found that PCC (Post-COVID Conditions) patients were more likely to experience symptoms related to vagus nerve dysfunction.
  2. This suggests a potential link between vagus nerve dysfunction and the development of PCC.
  3. Previous studies have explored impaired vagal activity in long-term COVID patients and proposed vagal nerve stimulation as a therapeutic approach.


Vagal Nerve Stimulation

  1. Vagus nerve stimulation can be accomplished through various devices and methods.
  2. An implantable vagus nerve stimulator, FDA-approved for epilepsy and depression treatment, sends stimulation to specific brain areas related to seizures and mood.
  3. Another FDA-approved vagus nerve stimulation device aids in stroke rehabilitation by assisting individuals in recovering hand and arm function. It helps establish new brain pathways during exercises, facilitating functional recovery.



Operation Polo

  1. Operation Polo commemorates its 75th anniversary on September 13, 2023.
  2. The operation involved the Indian Army\’s military action to integrate the princely state of Hyderabad.
  3. The Nizam of Hyderabad hesitated to join India after India\’s Independence on August 15, 1947.
  4. Termed as a \’Police Action’ by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the military offensive saw the surrender of the Nizam\’s forces to the Indian Army by September 18, 1948.


Hindi Diwas

  1. Hindi Day, observed on September 14th in India.
  2. Commemorates the formal recognition of Hindi in the Devanagari script as an official language.
  3. Recognized by the Constituent Assembly of India in 1949.
  4. Enshrined in Article 343 of the Constitution of India.
  5. Highlights Hindi\’s role in unifying India\’s linguistic and cultural diversity.
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