Daily News Analysis 02 August 2023 (The Hindu)

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Here are the topics covered for 02 August 2023: Indian Government Revamps Telecom Regulatory Authority to Enhance Telecom Services, India Introduces Bills to Reform Nursing, Midwifery, and Dentistry Professions, Challenges Faced by India\’s Regional Connectivity Scheme, Strategies for Sustainable Air Connectivity, Impact of Climate Change on Children, India\’s Mangrove Ecosystems Face Threats, Government Implements Initiatives for Conservation, Space Debris Poses Risks to Satellites and Space Missions, India\’s ISRO Implements Monitoring System, NITI Aayog: Towards Decarbonising Transport 2023, Plastic Overshoot Days, Skilling in Emerging Technologies, Paharis and Paddaris, Lithium Extraction, The Indian Institutes of Management (Amendment) Bill, 2023, Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF), Finger Minutiae Record – Finger Image Record (FMR-FIR) Modality, Unique Indian Crafts Receive Geographical Indication Tags, WHO Endorses Polypills for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, The Iberian Wolf.


Table of Contents

GS Paper 2:

  • Indian Government Revamps Telecom Regulatory Authority to Enhance Telecom Services
  • India Introduces Bills to Reform Nursing, Midwifery, and Dentistry Professions
  • Challenges Faced by India\’s Regional Connectivity Scheme, Strategies for Sustainable Air Connectivity


GS Paper 3:

  • Impact of Climate Change on Children
  • India\’s Mangrove Ecosystems Face Threats, Government Implements Initiatives for Conservation
  • Space Debris Poses Risks to Satellites and Space Missions, India\’s ISRO Implements Monitoring System
  • NITI Aayog: Towards Decarbonising Transport 2023
  • Plastic Overshoot Days


Prelims Related Facts

  • Skilling in Emerging Technologies
  • Paharis and Paddaris
  • Lithium Extraction
  • The Indian Institutes of Management (Amendment) Bill, 2023
  • Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF)
  • Finger Minutiae Record – Finger Image Record (FMR-FIR) Modality
  • Unique Indian Crafts Receive Geographical Indication Tags
  • WHO Endorses Polypills for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention
  • The Iberian Wolf


Indian Government Revamps Telecom Regulatory Authority to Enhance Telecom Services


Context: The Indian government has initiated reforms in the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) to enhance and regulate the telecom services sector more effectively.


TRAI\’s Key Responsibilities:

  1. Policy Framing: TRAI is responsible for formulating policies and regulations related to the telecom industry.
  2. Tariff Fixation: The authority is in charge of fixing tariffs for telecom services.
  3. Quality of Service: TRAI ensures the quality of telecom services provided to consumers.
  4. Advisory Role: TRAI advises the government on matters concerning the telecom industry.


Latest TRAI Initiatives: TRAI is leveraging advanced technologies, such as AI-enabled network management, to improve surveillance and ensure the efficiency of telecom services. Additionally, the promotion of telecom infrastructure on wheels is being explored to cater to temporary or underserved locations.


India Introduces Bills to Reform Nursing, Midwifery, and Dentistry Professions

 Context: The Indian government has introduced two significant bills aimed at reforming and enhancing the professions of nursing, midwifery, and dentistry in the country.


National Nursing and Midwifery Commission (NNMC) Bill: The NNMC Bill seeks to establish a new regulatory body for nursing and midwifery professionals, replacing the outdated Indian Nursing Council Act of 1947.


National Dental Commission (NDC) Bill: The NDC Bill aims to regulate the profession of dentistry and promote better dental healthcare services across the country.


Challenges Faced by India\’s Regional Connectivity Scheme, Strategies for Sustainable Air Connectivity

 Context: India\’s regional air connectivity scheme, UDAN, has encountered challenges that need to be addressed to ensure sustainable air connectivity to remote and underserved areas.



  1. Commercial Viability: Ensuring commercial viability for airlines operating in regional routes is a major challenge due to lower demand and high operating costs.
  2. Infrastructural Constraints: Limited airport infrastructure and facilities in remote areas hinder seamless regional air connectivity.
  3. Subsidies and Funding: Streamlining subsidy disbursal and attracting private investment are crucial for the success of the UDAN scheme.
  4. Operational Efficiency: Addressing operational challenges and ensuring timely and reliable services are essential for passenger satisfaction.
  5. Passenger Awareness: Promoting awareness about regional air connectivity and its benefits can boost passenger demand.


Strategies for Sustainable Air Connectivity: Addressing the challenges faced by the UDAN scheme requires collaborative efforts from the government, aviation industry stakeholders, and local authorities. Strategies include:

  1. Upgrading Airport Infrastructure: Investment in airport infrastructure and facilities in remote regions to support regional air operations.
  2. Streamlining Subsidy Disbursal: Efficient allocation and utilization of subsidies to attract airlines to regional routes.
  3. Addressing Operational Constraints: Identifying and resolving operational challenges to enhance the reliability and efficiency of regional air services.
  4. Awareness and Promotion: Conducting awareness campaigns to educate people about the benefits of regional air connectivity.


Impact of Climate Change on Children


A recent study has highlighted how climate change contributes to violence against children.


Hazards and Disaster Risk

  1. Natural disasters create stressful environments, leading to higher risks of violence against children in relief shelters or at home.
  2. In post-disaster situations, children might be forced into labor for recovery efforts.



  1. Climate change can exacerbate child marriage in certain regions due to drought-induced economic pressures, affecting girls disproportionately.


Mobility and Immobility

  1. Climate migrants face increased risks of violence, and separation from families or caregivers makes children vulnerable.
  2. Immobility, as in slum areas, can lead to child abuse and violence.


Child Labor

  1. Natural disasters and climate-change-related industries contribute to child labor, exposing children to exploitation and violence.



  1. Climate-related mental health issues can lead to increased perpetration of violence against children, as eco-anxiety and fear of consequences contribute to domestic violence.


Impact on Health and Nutrition

  1. As temperatures rise, infants will bear the greatest burden of malnutrition and rising food prices.
  2. Children will suffer most from the rise in infectious diseases.


Addressing Violence Against Children

  1. Integrated Policies: Develop context-specific policies that recognize the link between climate change and violence against children.
  2. Early Warning Systems: Establish early warning systems for climate-related disasters that consider children\’s vulnerabilities.
  3. Psychosocial Support: Offer counseling, play therapy, and mental health services to help children cope with anxiety and stress.
  4. Gender-Sensitive Interventions: Focus on preventing child marriage, human trafficking, and gender-based violence exacerbated by climate change.
  5. Climate-Resilient Education: Integrate climate change awareness and preparedness into school curricula to empower children with knowledge and skills.
  6. Child-Centered Disaster Plans: Develop and implement disaster preparedness plans that address the needs of children during extreme weather events.
  7. Child-Centered Shelters: Design and set up shelters that prioritize the safety and well-being of children during emergencies.



Efforts must be made to address the impact of climate change on children by implementing multi-faceted approaches that consider their vulnerabilities and well-being.


India\’s Mangrove Ecosystems Face Threats, Government Implements Initiatives for Conservation


Mangroves, vital coastal ecosystems found in India\’s tropical and subtropical regions, are facing significant threats to their existence. The country\’s mangrove cover spans 4992 sq. km, with the Sundarbans in West Bengal hosting the largest mangrove forests, renowned for their rich biodiversity.


Courtesy: https://www.mapsofindia.com/top-ten/geography/top-ten-mangrove-forest-2021.jpg


Significance of Mangroves:

  1. Biodiversity Conservation: Mangroves serve as crucial habitats for diverse plant and animal species, including the Royal Bengal tiger and Irrawady Dolphin, providing breeding, nursery, and feeding grounds.
  2. Coastal Protection: Their dense root systems act as natural buffers, safeguarding shorelines against erosion, storm surges, and tsunamis.
  3. Carbon Sequestration: Mangroves are effective carbon sinks, absorbing and storing substantial amounts of carbon dioxide, contributing to climate change mitigation.
  4. Fisheries and Livelihoods: Mangroves support fisheries by providing nursery areas for fish and shellfish, supporting local livelihoods and food security.
  5. Water Quality Improvement: These ecosystems act as natural filters, purifying coastal waters by removing pollutants and excess nutrients, preserving marine ecosystem health.


Challenges Faced by Mangroves:

  1. Habitat Destruction: Mangroves are threatened by activities such as agriculture, urbanization, aquaculture, and infrastructure development, leading to habitat loss and fragmentation.
  2. Climate Change: Rising sea levels and extreme weather events make mangroves vulnerable to damage and destruction.
  3. Pollution: Industrial discharges and improper waste disposal contaminate mangrove habitats, impacting the flora and fauna.
  4. Lack of Integrated Management: Integrated conservation approaches are necessary to address interconnected issues affecting mangrove ecosystems.


Government Initiatives for Mangrove Conservation: The Indian government has undertaken various initiatives to safeguard mangroves, including projects like MISHTI (Mangrove Initiative for Shoreline Habitats & Tangible Incomes) and SAIME (Sustainable Aquaculture In Mangrove Ecosystem). Additionally, advanced technologies like drone monitoring and AI algorithms are being employed to enhance conservation efforts.


Space Debris Poses Risks to Satellites and Space Missions, India\’s ISRO Implements Monitoring System

 Context: Space debris, comprising non-functional man-made objects in Earth\’s orbit, poses significant risks to operational satellites and space missions. The increasing number of satellite launches by various countries has led to a crowded space environment, raising concerns about potential collisions and accidents.


Challenges Posed by Space Debris:

  1. More Satellite Launches: The surge in satellite launches contributes to the cluttered space environment, increasing the risk of collisions and accidents.
  2. Coordination and Space Traffic Management: Lack of coordination among spacefaring nations and regional entities heightens the risk of collisions and accidents.
  3. Technological Challenges: Space missions require cutting-edge technology, which can be costly and prone to technical failures.
  4. Geopolitical Tensions: Growing interests of multiple countries in outer space may lead to geopolitical tensions, hindering international cooperation.


India\’s ISRO Initiatives: To address the challenges posed by space debris, India\’s ISRO has established the System for Safe and Sustainable Operations Management (IS 4 OM). This monitoring system aims to avoid collisions with operational space assets, ensuring the safety and sustainability of space activities.


NITI Aayog: Towards Decarbonising Transport 2023


The \”Towards Decarbonising Transport 2023\” report by NITI Aayog aims to support global discussions on sustainable transport during India\’s G20 presidency.


What is Decarbonising Transport?

  1. Refers to reducing or eliminating carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector.
  2. Examples include promoting electric vehicles, using alternative fuels, improving energy efficiency, and investing in public transport.


Status of Emission from the Transport Sector

  1. Transport sector in India contributes to around 14-15% of the country\’s total greenhouse gas emissions.
  2. Road transport contributes to more than 90% of the total CO2 emissions within the transport sector.
  3. India aims to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070.


Key Highlights of the Report

  1. India lacks overall emissions or energy targets for the transport sector.
  2. Transport-sector emissions could increase 65% by 2030 and 197% by 2050 compared to 2020 levels.
  3. Road transport is the major contributor to emissions.


Recommendations of the Report

  1. Increase Reliance on Zero-Carbon Electricity: Transition towards using renewable energy sources for powering transport.
  2. Market Ramp-Up of Power-to-X Fuels: Invest in the production of carbon-neutral alternatives for energy-dense fuels used in aviation and shipping.
  3. Eliminate Fossil-Fuel Subsidies: Phase out subsidies that favor carbon-intensive transport modes.
  4. \”Avoid, Shift, Improve\” Strategy: Focus on avoiding unnecessary trips, shifting to sustainable transport, and improving energy efficiency.


Initiatives by India

  1. Bharat Stage VI Emission Standards
  2. Forum for Decarbonizing Transport in India
  3. FAME India (National Electric Mobility Mission Plan)
  4. National Electric Mobility Mission Plan
  5. Incentives under the Production Linked Incentive scheme


Conclusion To meet its nationally determined contributions, India needs comprehensive policies to decarbonize the transport sector, focusing on mobility and energy transitions.


Plastic Overshoot Days

In 2023, India experienced 157 days of plastic overshoot, exceeding its waste management capacity. A recent report highlights India\’s role in global mismanaged plastic waste.


What is Plastic Overshoot Day?

  1. Marks the point in a year when plastic waste generated exceeds waste management capacity.
  2. World\’s first Plastic Overshoot Day on July 28, 2023.


Status of Plastic

  1. India has Mismanaged Waste Index (MWI) of over 98% and categorized as \”The Waste Sponges.\”
  2. India contributed over 73 lakh ton of mismanaged plastic waste in 2023.
  3. India has relatively low annual per capita plastic consumption.


Measures Needed

  1. Reduce Single-Use Plastics: Ban on plastic straws and cutlery.
  2. Promote Recycling and Circular Economy: Implementing bottle deposit return systems.
  3. Improve Waste Collection and Management: Increasing recycling bins.
  4. Raise Public Awareness: Conducting anti-plastic campaigns.
  5. Enforce Extended Producer Responsibility: Manufacturers responsible for plastic waste.
  6. Innovate Packaging Solutions: Creating biodegradable packaging materials.
  7. Policies: Increasing investment in waste management policies.
  8. Global Treaty: Need for a global treaty on plastic pollution.


Initiatives by India

  1. 1000 Cities to become 3-Star Garbage Free by October 2024
  2. Mission LiFe
  3. Plastic Waste Management Rule
  4. Ban on single use of plastics
  5. \’Beat Plastic Pollution\’ campaign by Kerala Government



Efforts are required to slow the flow of plastic at its source and improve the way plastic waste is managed to combat plastic pollution.


Skilling in Emerging Technologies


The Directorate General of Training (DGT) partners with Amazon Web Services (AWS) India to offer skilling programs on emerging technologies.


Aim The collaboration aims to upskill students of Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and National Skill Training Institutes (NSTIs) in areas like cloud computing, data annotation, artificial intelligence (AI), and machine learning (ML).


Usage This example can be used as a way forward in questions related to skilling using a public-private model of learning in future technologies.


 Paharis and Paddaris

Context The Indian government introduces the Constitution (Jammu and Kashmir) Scheduled Tribes Order (Amendment) Bill, 2023, to include four communities in the list of Scheduled Tribes (STs) in Jammu and Kashmir.


Four Communities Proposed for ST Status

  1. Gadda Brahmin
  2. Koli
  3. Paddari Tribe
  4. Pahari Ethnic Group


Existing Dominant ST Communities in J&K

  1. Gujjars and Bakerwals


Lithium Extraction

Context India successfully extracted lithium from mineral concentrate on a laboratory scale as part of its mineral security strategy.


About Lithium

  1. Soft and silvery-white metal.
  2. Major global reserves in Chile, Australia, and Argentina.


The Indian Institutes of Management (Amendment) Bill, 2023

Context The bill aims to change the law governing the administration of Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) by giving the government an expanded role in the appointment and removal of IIM Directors.


Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF)

Context The Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) in the Indian economy has increased from over Rs 32 lakh crore in 2014-15 to about Rs 54 lakh crore in 2022-23 (Provisional Estimates).


What is GFCF?

  1. Total investment made in the production of physical assets within a country during a specific period.


 Finger Minutiae Record – Finger Image Record (FMR-FIR) Modality

Context UIDAI employs artificial intelligence-based technology using FMR-FIR modality to prevent fraud in the Aadhaar-enabled Payment System (AePS).


How It Works: Verifies the authenticity of fingerprints during authentication by combining finger minutiae and finger images.


Unique Indian Crafts Receive Geographical Indication Tags

  • Jalesar Dhatu Shilp: A metal craft from Jalesar, Uttar Pradesh, known for decorative metal crafts and brassware.
  • Goan Mankurad Mango: Represents a unique variety of mangoes from Goa.
  • Goan Bebinca: The traditional Indo-Portuguese pudding, known as the \’queen of Goan desserts\’.
  • Rajasthan\’s GI Tags:
    1. Udaipur Koftgari Metal Craft
    2. Bikaner Kashidakari Craft
    3. Jodhpur Bandhej Craft
    4. Bikaner Usta Kala Craft


WHO Endorses Polypills for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

  1. Polypills are fixed-dose combination medications for preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.
  2. Studies show polypills reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes by about 40% to 50%.
  3. Polycap, a four-drug combination manufactured by Cadila in India, is included in the WHO\’s revised Model Lists of Essential Medicines (EML) 2023.


The Iberian Wolf


Courtesy: https://www.deviantart.com

The Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) is native to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal).

  1. The species is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List.
  2. The recent report for 2020 indicates the Iberian wolf\’s absence in Andalusia, Spain.
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