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Here are the topics covered for 27th December 2023:
GS-2: Cruelty for Dowry
GS-3: Ministry of Textiles, Renewable Energy Investments, Fiscal Deficit
Facts for Prelims: Veer Bal Diwas, INS IMPHAL
Cruelty for Dowry
- The Supreme Court has ruled that a single instance of bad behavior cannot be classified as harassment or cruelty for dowry under Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code.
About Section 498A of the IPC
- Section 498A mandates that “whoever, being the husband or the relative of the husband of a woman, subjects such woman to cruelty shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine”.
- Any willful conduct likely to drive a woman to commit suicide or cause grave injury to her mental or physical health, or harassment aimed at coercing her to meet unlawful demands for property or valuable security, constitutes harassment or cruelty for dowry under Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code.
Supreme Court Stance
- The Supreme Court, in a recent order, clarified that a discordant instance of bad behavior, unless significant and with material evidence of interference in marital life, may not be sufficient to implicate a person for committing cruelty under Section 498A of the IPC.
- The court made this clarification while hearing the appeal of a woman accused of using foul language and dumping her newlywed sister-in-law\’s belongings in the dustbin.
Ministry of Textiles
- The Year-End Review for 2023 by the Ministry of Textiles highlights various initiatives and accomplishments within the textile sector.
Textile Sector in India
- The domestic apparel & textile industry in India contributes approx. 2.3% to the country’s GDP, 13% to industrial production, and 12% to exports. India has a 4% share of the global trade in textiles and apparel.
- India is one of the largest producers of cotton and jute in the world.
- India is also the 2nd largest producer of silk in the world and 95% of the world’s hand-woven fabric comes from India. Total textile exports are expected to reach $65 Bn by FY26 and are expected to grow at 10% CAGR from 2019-20 to reach $190 Bn by 2025-26.
- The textiles and apparel industry in India is the 2nd largest employer in the country providing direct employment to 45 Mn people and 100 Mn people in allied industries.
- India has also become the second-largest manufacturer of PPE in the world. More than 600 companies in India are certified to produce PPEs today, whose global market worth is expected to be over $92.5 Bn by 2025, up from $52.7 Bn in 2019.
- India is set to achieve $250 Bn textiles production and $100 Bn exports by 2030.
- The domestic apparel & textile industry in India contributed 2% to the country’s GDP, and 7% of industry output in value terms.
- India holds a 4% share of the global trade in textiles and apparel. The share of Textiles and apparel in the overall export basket of India was 10.33% during 2021-22.
- The production of Eri and Muga silks, increased by 6% and 6.7% respectively during 2021-22.
Renewable Energy Investments
- As per the Power Ministry, India is set to witness a more than 83% increase in investments in renewable energy projects to about $16.5 billion in 2024. This will help India to focus more on energy transition to reduce carbon emissions.
Renewable Energy in India
- India has set a target to reduce the carbon intensity of the nation’s economy by less than 45% by the end of the decade, achieve 50 percent cumulative electric power installed by 2030 from renewables, and achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2070.
- India aims for 500 GW of renewable energy installed capacity by 2030.
- India aims to produce five million tonnes of green hydrogen by 2030. This will be supported by 125 GW of renewable energy capacity.
- 57 solar parks with an aggregate capacity of 39.28 GW have been approved in India.
- Wind Energy has an off-shore target of 30 GW by 2030, with potential sites identified.
- Apart from solar and wind energy, India has increased its focus on green hydrogen in a big way to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, mainly diesel, which is required for long-haul vehicles.
- India is a diesel-based economy in a way that most of the commercial vehicles for passenger and freight services use diesel as the fuel.
- Later in July, the Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) called bids for incentives for producing 4,50,000 tonnes of green hydrogen and 1.5 GW of electrolyzer manufacturing facilities annually.
- As many as 21 firms bid for incentives for electrolyzer manufacturing of 3.4 GW and 14 companies for green hydrogen production of 5,53,730 tonnes under the Strategic Interventions for Green Hydrogen Transition (SIGHT) Scheme (Mode-1-Tranche-I).
- India\’s National Green Hydrogen Mission targets 5 million metric tonnes per annum of green hydrogen production capacity by 2030, establishing the country as a global manufacturing hub.
- Initial plans include two green hydrogen hubs, with major ports like Deendayal, Paradip, and Tuticorin earmarked for development. Presently, India has 7.8 million tonnes of green hydrogen capacity in different stages of progress.
- As per India Ratings, India\’s fiscal deficit for the current year might surpass the targeted 5.9% of GDP and potentially reach 6%, despite robust tax collections.
What is Fiscal Deficit?
- The difference between total revenue and total expenditure of the government is termed a fiscal deficit.
- It is an indication of the total borrowings needed by the government.
- While calculating the total revenue, borrowings are not included.
- The expected shortfall in disinvestment outcomes may be compensated by buoyant tax revenues. However, the risk arises from the possibility of revenue spending exceeding the Budget Estimate by approximately ₹2 lakh crore.
- The government has obtained parliamentary approval for the initial supplementary demand for grants in the current year, necessitating an additional cash outlay of ₹53,378 crore.
- This raises the total spending commitment for 2023-24 to ₹45.6 lakh crore, encompassing around ₹35.6 lakh crore in revenue expenditure and ₹10.1 lakh crore in capital expenditure.
- In the first supplementary demand for grants, the government sought more funds for priority areas like food, fertilizer, LPG subsidies, and MGNREGS.
- The augmented expenditure is largely attributed to increased spending by specific ministries and the replenishment of over ₹28,000 crore to the Contingency Fund of India, which had been withdrawn as an advance by 30 departments in the past.
Facts for Prelims
Veer Bal Diwas
- After establishing the Khalsa Panth, Guru Gobind Singh left Anandpur Sahib with his family in December 1704 amidst Aurangzeb’s invasion.
- The younger Sahibzades were captured by Subedar Wazir Khan of Sirhind and faced pressure for religious conversion, leading to their tragic martyrdom.
- The elder Sahibzades, Ajit Singh, and Jujhar Singh were martyred in the battle of Chamkaur in 1705.
- The Indian Navy officially commissioned INS Imphal, its latest stealth-guided missile destroyer, in a ceremony held at the naval dockyard in Mumbai.
- The Defence Minister of India emphasized that the INS Imphal underscores the country\’s self-reliance in the defense sector.
- This warship boasts the capability to carry a variety of weapons and is specifically designed for operations in nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare scenarios.